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PyramidIt has always pained me a great deal that so many people all over the world are genuinely fascinated by ancient Egypt and yet they are so woefully misinformed by sensationalist media, so-called documentaries based in pseudoscience, and the fantasy world of Hollywood. No other ancient civilization is so universally recognized and yet so thoroughly misunderstood. Sadly, Egyptologists are often so frustrated by this that they want nothing to do with the situation; it’s not just a matter of educating people, it’s completely reeducating them—trying to reverse the damage caused by ‘The Mummy’ and even the Discovery Channel.

When I tell people that I’m studying Egyptology, people always assume that this means pyramids and mummies, the only things they know about Egypt. In fact these areas are so popular that they are overrun by untrained theorists and most Egyptologists shun them rather than tackling all of the misinformation. Sometimes I can hardly blame them—even as a lowly student, I was once approached at a conference by a man who wanted to show me the home experiments that he’d carried out, pulling miniature pyramid blocks in his backyard! The sad thing though is that many people prefer madcap theories to the truth, especially when genuine research is presented in dry academic speak rather than the exciting Indiana Jones-style of tv.

Once I was actually asked in all seriousness for my professional opinion on whether alien build the pyramids. The man said: ‘There’s so much discussion of the alien theory that there must be something to it, right?’. Well, my short answer would be, ‘No. There isn’t anything to it at all.’ My longer answer will follow, with a thorough dissection of the central arguments of the alien theory and why they are wrong. I think the main reason the theory is so popular is that people like to believe in things, things that are much bigger than themselves, whether it’s god or aliens. But often people also want proof and they seek to find it in the pyramids and other ancient monuments. It’s no wonder that the pyramids are incredible enough that they inspire people to believe the unbelievable. I myself don’t think there’s anything wrong with postulating that there might be other life out there in the universe, but I also don’t believe in robbing humanity of pride in its achievements.

I think it’s rather more inspiring to think that human beings, our own ancestors, created such spectacular monumental achievements. However, some people see the concept of civilization as progressive, that humans only continue to improve upon the past, so they think that just because we are uncertain about how the pyramids were built and we ourselves would struggle to replicate their achievement, it is impossible that humans of the past could have done it.

They say that since the pyramids of Giza were built about 4500 years ago, people back then couldn’t have been skilled enough to do it. However, we’re ignoring that numerous remarkable developments were happening all those millennia ago. There are many things that were discovered in the distant past that still serve us today. The Egyptians made many brilliant innovations (something I will have to write more about in another post)—simple things that we still use today, which have barely changed over the millennia since they first conceived, from the earliest forms of paper and ink, to the 24 hour day.

People say that since we wouldn’t be able to build pyramids today, that the Egyptians couldn’t have done it, but it’s not just building of the pyramids that couldn’t be replicated today. It’s hard to imagine ever being able to pull together the resources, power, money, skilled craftsmen, and architects needed to build one of the great gothic cathedrals in this day and age. It just couldn’t happen. This isn’t something to be ashamed of though, we simply use different technologies and have different priorities these days. While we couldn’t build another Notre Dame Cathedral or Great Pyramid, modern structures like the Eiffel Tower or the Gherkin wouldn’t have been possible back then either. Pyramids were possible simply because the entire economy, resources, and population of the Egyptian civilization was under the control of a single omnipotent ruler, who could mobilize them all into a monumental building project.

To argue that just because we don’t know every detail about how the pyramids were built would be a logical fallacy—an argument from ignorance—and does not prove that aliens must have built them. We have so much evidence that strongly indicates that the Egyptians themselves were responsible for building the pyramids. We have archaeological evidence of their construction—remains of the quarries, roads, tools, records of the workers and the towns in which they lived. We know why they built them and we can even observe their lengthy and imperfect evolution before they reached their architectural peak with the Great Pyramid.

To properly address the issues out there, I will cite from a number of websites that support the theory that aliens built the pyramids and some of the comments that individuals have posted there, and explain why they are incorrect. I randomly chose a number of sites from the top Google search hits for aliens and pyramids. I don’t want to single anyone out or anything, so I won’t use any names attached to the comments. The various websites from which they derive are listed at the end of this post.

I am no great pyramid expert myself, so I must acknowledge an enormous debt to the work of Mark Lehner and Dieter Arnold, from whom most of my information derives, along with other Egyptological sources, all of which are also listed at the end. I’d recommend Lehner’s ‘The Complete Pyramids’ as the best general book on the subject if you want to learn more. It is very readable with lots of illustrations and diagrams.

Why were the pyramids built?

Referring to the alien theory, someone states: ‘It’s the most sensible theory. Why would ancient Egyptians build such monstrosities just to bury their kings?’ Alien theorists say that it’s a mystery why the Egyptians or other ancient people would build such immense monuments. Therefore, it must have been aliens. But why on earth would the aliens want to build these monuments? And on earth? That makes even less sense. We definitely know the purpose behind the building of the pyramids.

They were used as tombs for the ancient Egyptian kings, but they represented much more than just a grave. They were iconic symbols of the supreme power of the ruler; what better way of showing your subjects who’s boss, than conscripting them to build you a monolith that dominates the entire landscape? Above all, they were monuments to divine Egyptian kingship, the place where the king would be transformed into a god. One of the most important Egyptian myths tells how an ancient king named Osiris was murdered by his evil usurping brother, who in turn was eventually defeated by the rightful heir to the throne, Osiris’ son Horus. In death, Egyptian kings were thought to take on the role of Osiris, the ruler of the underworld, while their son assumed the role of Horus and the kingship. And although deceased, the former king would join the eternal cycle of life to be reborn everyday with the sun god. The pyramid was thought to facilitate this. This also legitimized the rule of the successor to the throne, since the pyramid was a symbol of his father’s new divinity.

There are a number of reasons why these tombs were built in a pyramidal form. First of all, they developed out of an older form of monumental royal tombs called mastabas, which were flat-roofed rectangular buildings, that an enterprising architect named Imhotep then decided to adapt by stacking one on top of the other into a step pyramid form. Also, the pyramid was intended as a place of rebirth. An Egyptian creation myth tells of the birth of the world as a primeval mound rising out of the waters of chaos. The pyramid is a stylized mound.

In a country where the sun is always shining, the sun god Re was the supreme deity, and the king aspired to join him in being reborn every dawn. The pyramid form echoed the rays of the sun and its staircase like form allowed it to serve as an instrument of ascension. Each of the pyramids was capped with a pyramidal stone block, or pyramidion, and the carvings on the one from Amenemhat III’s pyramid at Dashur confirm its celestial role for the king; it is inscribed with a pair of eyes looking up at the sundisk and hieroglyphs that read ‘Amenemhat beholds the perfection of Re’.

The ancient names for the pyramids themselves reveal a great deal about their purpose as royal monuments and symbolic locations for the king’s divine transformation and journey to heaven. The Great Pyramid is called ‘Khufu’s horizon’, and the other two Giza pyramids are called ‘Great is Khafre’ and ‘Menkaure is Divine’. Other pyramid names include ‘Djedefre is a Sehed-Star’ and Sahure’s ‘Rising of the Ba-Spirit’. Just because the Egyptians were interested in the celestial aspect of the afterlife though, doesn’t mean they had to be inspired by aliens. People throughout history have been fascinated by the stars, and I don’t think anyone’s calling Galileo an alien.

The pyramids themselves were clearly part of Egyptian religious tradition, forming the focal point for the worship of the deceased king. Some of the rituals involved cleaning, dressing, and offering food and drink to statues of the king, who was undoubtedly human rather than green or tentacled. We actually have records of the day-to-day activities centred around the pyramids. The Abusir papyri preserve detailed records of the daily activities at the pyramids and of the people who worked there, including schedules of priest and guard duties; inventories of pyramid temple equipment; financial accounts; lists of goods supplied and stored; and records of architectural inspections.

The Egyptians had strong cultural, religious, and political reasons for building the pyramids and there is no reason to question their purpose.

Some internet sites claim that the pyramids were never used as tombs, perhaps because they now lie empty.

This is because they were robbed in antiquity for the treasures that would have been buried with the king. There are still huge stone sarcophagi in many of the pyramids that were clearly used to hold the royal mummy. Funerary texts are also written inside the burial chambers of pyramids built after the Giza ones. The temples attached to the pyramids were used for mortuary rituals at the funeral.

Alien theorists often say that the pyramids couldn’t have been built by such ‘primitive’ ancient people and it’s strange that the pyramids suddenly just appeared out of nowhere

The main idea that most people use to support the theory of alien pyramid builders is—and I quote—that ancient man was ‘primitive’, ‘living in mud huts’, and too ‘stupid’ to build such sophisticated constructions. One website states: ‘In the period 2500 BC man did not have the tools or knowledge necessary to build the pyramids, so only aliens could have done it. The angle of the slope of the sides is so precise only aliens could achieve this. The blocks are so heavy and the pyramid so tall only aliens could achieve this. How the aliens built the pyramids is not known, but they would have employed the use of advanced construction equipment.’

First of all, these ancient peoples were nowhere near as stupid as the people who make such statements. While we may have accumulated knowledge over the centuries, our species’ brains haven’t changed at all in the past few thousand years and ancient people were just as intelligent as we are today.

Before the pyramids were built, the Egyptians had developed agriculture, writing, religion, astronomy, mathematics, metal-working and semi-precious stones, sophisticated artwork and monumental stone architecture, and had managed to unite the various people throughout the country under the rule of one king. This was a true civilization, not a motley band of savages. The pyramids of Giza were incredible achievements for the time—expert Mark Lehner calculates that 9 million tonnes of limestone were quarried between the reigns of Sneferu and Menkaure alone.

When you really learn enough about them, it’s not difficult at all to imagine that the Egyptians were capable of such architectural sophistication. They had a certain expertise in stone working that we lack today. By the time of the pyramids, a corps of craftsmen had been developing their quarrying and building skills since the Early Dynastic Period. We have evidence to support the Egyptians’ responsibility for all the construction stages of the pyramids.

A similar claim for the sudden appearance of the pyramids from nowhere, out of the supposed dark ages that proceeded civilization, is made in a Discovery channel programme about the alien theory (!) in which the voiceover states: ‘For two and a half million years our prehistoric ancestors had been living in caves, passing the time by bashing stones together, when suddenly everything changed and people began to build huge monuments all over the planet. But how? And why?’
They blatantly ignore the fact that we have clear evidence for the evolution of the form and building process of the pyramids. These perfections of architectural engineering did not just appear from nowhere and the Egyptians actually got it wrong in a number of early pyramids before they were able to create the Giza masterpieces.

The first pyramid ever built, the Step Pyramid at Saqqara, started off as a completely different style of building. Originally, a traditional mastaba was built for the Third Dynasty king Djoser. The architect Imhotep then began to make innovative changes by enlarging the basic structure to be a square and then building a smaller mastaba-like square on top. But he didn’t stop there; inspired, Imhotep expanded the building once again and added a fourth, fifth, and sixth level to eventually form the Step Pyramid.

A remarkable structure with an extensive surrounding complex and subterranean palace, it was still not a true pyramid with smooth sides. After a few other stepped pyramid projects were abandoned by short-lived kings, the first attempt at a true pyramid finally developed out of the stepped pyramid of King Sneferu at Meidum.

The Meidum pyramid was originally intended to be a 7-step pyramid and was then expanded to 8-steps and completed in the 14th year of Sneferu’s reign. In his 28th or 29th year though, theBent pyramid workers were sent back again to fill out the rest of it into a true pyramid. Stripped of its outer casing, the remains of the pyramid stand in three large steps. Before he did that though, the ambitious builder Sneferu began building another pyramid at the site of Dashur that was the first pyramid intended to be a true pyramid right from the start. Unaccustomed to building such a structure though, construction began at too steep an angle, a slope of 60°. When severe structural problems were noticed, the architects took emergency measures and altered it to 55°. Still having problems though, they changed it again to a more gradual gradient of 44°, resulting in a rather odd looking pyramid, which has appropriately been dubbed the Bent Pyramid.

Some alien advocates actually try to use this pyramid to support their theory by claiming that the Bent Pyramid was just a shoddy imitation built by humans to copy the aliens who build the Giza pyramids. However, the pyramid is very conclusively dated to years 15-30 of Sneferu’s reign. This first attempt at a true pyramid was so problematic though that Sneferu abandoned it too, and started another pyramid at Meidum. Learning from previous mistakes, the North pyramid continued to build on the developments of Sneferu’s previous efforts, resulting in the first truly successful and magnificent true pyramid.

Pyramids did not suddenly appear out of nowhere, beamed in by alien technology. Only after all of these less successful attempts, and all the experience gained by architects and workers, could the stage be set for the construction of the greatest of world wonders.

How did the ancient Egyptians build the Pyramids?

Pyramid building was a long and complex process that took many different stages and and an amazing amount of resources, but was well within ancient Egyptian capabilities.

The Great Pyramid is composed of roughly 2,300,000 blocks and was likely built in 23 years or less (the length of its builder King Khufu’s reign according to the Turin papyrus). Stadelmann has calculated that to do this, the builders had to lay c. 340 blocks a day. The general figure suggested for the annual workforce is in the range of 20-30,000. Although it needed a great deal of stone, the bulk of it would have been more easily moved as it would have gone into the base of the pyramid, and even though the Great Pyramid was the best constructed, the core itself was also rather sloppier than the exterior, including many irregular stones and debris fill.
I will break down my discussion of the building process into the various stages:

Planning

The Egyptians were careful and precise architectural planners. Even buildings much older than the pyramids were laid out using an exact measuring system based on a unit called a cubit (about 52.5 cm, which could be further divided into smaller units called palms). Representations of foundation ceremonies for temples show this measuring process, called the ‘stretching of the cord’, being done using ropes tied to wooden pegs pounded into the ground. Many round holes that may have been for measuring pegs have been found cut into the bedrock around the foundations of pyramids and their temples.

The angle of inclination (seqed in Egyptian) for the sloped faces of the pyramids was clearly calculated by the Egyptians using a simple and precise method. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus shows that seqed was defined as the relation between the horizontal setback of the wall and the vertical rise of 1 cubit. Pyramid alignment is further discussed below. There is also evidence that they produced miniature architect’s models, much like is done today, as part of the planning. Rainer Stadlemann found a small limestone architect’s model for the innovative substructure of Amenemhat III’s Hawara pyramid.

Quarrying

We know that local limestone was used for the pyramid cores and the mortuary and valley temples, while finer limestone and granite were brought along river from Tura and Aswan to use for the smooth outer casing.

The quarry used for Khufu’s pyramid is located on the plateau itself, 300m south of the Great Pyramid, a huge horseshoe shaped chunk out of the plateau, dug up to 30m below the original surface. Khafre’s quarry gives a good example of how the blocks were actually quarried. In the open limestone quarry just north of his pyramid, there are still the stumps of 3x3m blocks that were removed thousands of years ago with trenches in between them where the stonecutters would have worked.
Quarry
Stone tools were used for quarrying. Blocks were cut by pounding channels into the limestone using hammer stones to separate them from bedrock and then detached using large wooden levers. Traces of these channels remain and there are still a number of unfinished quarry blocks that lie almost detached from the bedrock not far from the Sphinx, and in Menkaure’s quarry, where huge lever sockets are also visible.

In an interview with NOVA, Mark Lehner explains the strongly human and flawed side to these monuments:‘A pyramid is basically, most basically, two separate constructions: it’s an outer shell of very fine polished limestone with great accuracy in its joints…and the other construction is the inner core, which filled in this shell….The core was made with a substantial slop factor, as my friend who is a mechanic likes to say about certain automobiles. That is, they didn’t join the stones very accurately. You have great spaces between the stones…. And so they’d jam down pebbles and cobbles and some broken stones, and slop big quantities of gypsum mortar in there….

We saw in many places, even on the giant pyramids of Giza, the first pyramid and the second pyramid and the third one, fragments of tools, bits of pottery that are clearly characteristic of the Old Kingdom…. So you see the pyramids are very human monuments. And the evidence of the people who built them, their material culture is embedded right into the very fabric of the pyramids. And I think I could take just about any interested person and show them this kind of material embedded in the pyramids as well as tool marks in the stones and say, hey, folks, these weren’t lasers. These were chisels and hammers and you know, people who were really out there.’

Workers

There is actually a lot of evidence left of the ordinary people who performed the strenuous building work, who weren’t aliens, but most definitely Egyptian. While the total number of the workforce is speculative, we do know about the division of the work force and the size of these groups. The work force was organized by crews, each of roughly 2000 conscripted peasants, comprising two gangs of 1000. Each gang was divided into five groups of 200 men called zaa, also known by the Greek name ‘phyle’. Within each phyle were ten divisions of twenty men. The gangs seems to have been competitive and had names relating to the reigning king, for example ‘Friends of Khufu’ or ‘Drunkards of Menkaure’, and they actually graffitied their names on the buildings!

The stones from some of the Middle Kingdom pyramids have rough hieroglyphs inscribed on them as notes for either scribes or controllers. These notes consist of the date of transport, the workmen in charge of the block, and the stage of transport. Some state ‘brought from the quarry’ or ‘removal from the quarry’, delivered at the mereyt (harbour or embankment), ‘brought from the embankment’ and delivered to ‘storage enclosures’. Other notes records that they were ‘brought’ or ‘dragged’ to the pyramid, or ‘delivered to the ramp’. Herdsmen are also mentioned, who may have been responsible for driving oxen pulling the stone.

The stones also have team marks written on them to record the name of the team responsible for them. They may have been written and read by the basically illiterate workmen themselves, since some involve true hieroglyphs and others invented signs. Felix Arnold believes that the signs related to the worker’s hometowns—which weren’t in outer space.

There are also written documents that deal with the pyramid builders. Several of the Lahun papyri from the town associated with the pyramid builders of Senwosret II document the dragging of stone blocks by groups of workers.

Transport

The Nile River was the highway of Egypt and any finer stone that was quarried from further away was transported to the pyramid site by boats. Most of the stone was quarried nearby though, and wooden sledges were probably used to transport the blocks over land. A 4.2m long sledge was found by the pyramid of Senwosret III. At least some of these sledges would have been drawn by oxen. A number of tomb and temple wall paintings depict the transportation of stones by water and by sledges drawn by men or oxen.

Roads and tracks were made to pave the way for these sledges. Worn wooden beams were reused like ‘railway sleepers in tracks’ for dragging heavy stones on sledges overland. Such tracks have been found at Lisht near the Twelfth Dynasty pyramids of Amenemhat I and Senwosret I. Transport roads, which also survive at Lisht, measure up to 36 ft in width. They were made with a foundation consisting of a fill of limestone chips and mortar with wooden beams inserted, over which a layer of limestone chips and white gypsum was used to provide a smooth, solid surface. Water used as a lubricant for the ground to make it easier to pull the sledges.

Transporting immense quantities of stone was not an impossible task that would have required space ships, but well within the ancient Egyptians’ capabilities.

Laying the blocks

When the stone blocks were finally being moved into place, to preserve the precise alignment of the walls, corner blocks would be set first and then other blocks would be brought in on rollers but only levermoved into their precise final placement using levers. For example, one of the casing blocks of Khufu’s pyramid shows a lever hole in the base of the block that was then filled in with plaster. But lacking in ‘alien perfection’, sometimes since there were different teams working to lay blocks from each of the pyramid’s corners, they could end up with a gap in the middle, which would need to be filled with smaller blocks, as is the case with the pyramid of Meidum.

It is generally thought that ramps were used to move the blocks to the higher levels of the pyramids. Certainly some of the proto-pyramids, the step mastabas of the Third Dynasty show evidence of having had building ramps on all sides. For true pyramids, using such ramps blocks could have been towed to a height of 30-50 m, and at least 50% of blocks could have been lifted that way. The Meidum pyramid shows traces that indicate a steep ramp was applied to the outer casing. These ramps would not have been difficult to build or dismantle since they would have been made from an amalgam of limestone chip, tafla, and gypsum, rather than stone blocks.

All sorts of ramps have been proposed, from single or multiple straight ones to ones that would wrap around the structure or zigzag up the face or even internal ramps. Just because we don’t know for certain how the upper reaches of the pyramids were built, doesn’t automatically mean that they couldn’t have been built and are therefore alien constructions. There are a number of different ways it could have been done, but sadly we aren’t just able to ask the Egyptians which one is right. There probably isn’t even one simple answer—a number of different methods could have been used.

But…pyramids would have been really hard to build!

A lot of website comments display a fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of pyramids. One states: ‘There is no way that primitive man built the pyramids. Even with modern equipment (i.e. cranes) we could not duplicate that feat, those are megaton (1million ton) rocks. You could surround the entire rock with men and it wouldn’t budge 1″. There’s no way with simple ropes & pulleys that they moved those stones… absolutely NO WAY.’

While, yes, the pyramids would have been incredibly difficult to build and required incredible expertise, they are not miracle structures. People seem to think that you’d practically need magic to build them! They’re amazing feats of engineering, but they’re certainly not inconceivable as human creations. The blocks were certainly not a million tonnes each! On average, they weighed about 2.5 tonnes. And the suggestion of lifting the entire weight of the blocks with cranes would probably actually be more difficult than the Egyptian approach, which was to drag the stones over wooden rollers or slippery mud lined surfaces. We even have the remains of the smoothed roads that they built to move them. Just think about it—while I can barely lift my suitcase when it’s stuffed to the brim and weighing almost 30 kg, it’s relatively easy to move when it’s on wheels! By surrounding the blocks with teams of men, it wouldn’t have been that difficult to move them, and the Egyptians often used cattle to help as well. The NOVA pyramid-building experiment found that 20 men could easily pull a two-tonne block along lubricated tracks. Building the pyramids would have been difficult, but people can be pretty clever when it comes to making work easier.

What about the pyramids’ extraordinarily accurate alignment?

Precision, according to one website, is only possible if you come from another planet: ‘The pyramids are so accurately aligned with the points of the compass that only aliens could have achieved this all those thousands of years ago.’ It wasn’t visitors from space, but rather the observation of it that allowed for the Egyptians’ great accuracy in orienting the sides of theEdwards pyramids. Amazing precision could be achieved just by watching the stars. There was actually a whole institution within temples with priests devoted to star gazing. The theory suggested by I.E.S. Edwards is that using a horizontal circular wall, a person standing within could mark a star’s rising and setting points on the top of the wall, with North identifiable as the bisection of these. A more recent theory advocated by Kate Spence suggests that the architects of the Great Pyramid sighted on two stars (b-Ursae Minoris and z-Ursae Majoris), rotating around the North Pole, which would have been in alignment when Khufu’s pyramid was constructed. Supporting this theory is the fact that inaccuracies in the orientations of earlier and later pyramids can be closely correlated with the degree to which the alignment of these two stars deviates from true north.
Tools
The perfect right angles of the pyramid were likely achieved using either a set square, of which ancient specimens are preserved, or using a ‘Pythagorean’ triangle, which was known to the Egyptians before the Greeks. They also used specialized surveying tools called the merkhet (basically a plumb bob) and the bay, a sighting tool made from the central rib of a palm leaf. Examples of such precision tools have actually been excavated are square levels with plumb bobs, set squares, and vertical plumb rods, and there are depictions of them being used by the Egyptians. After each of the four corners of the building had been plotted, the Egyptians would align the straight sides by stretching a rope between each of the corners in a ceremony called ‘stretching the cord’. This method was in use for decades before the first pyramid was ever built, and was first depicted in the reign of the Second Dynasty king, Khasekhemwy.

But then why don’t we build pyramids?

Again, misinformation makes people assume that since we aren’t building pyramids ourselves, the Egyptians couldn’t possibly have. As one person states: ‘How about the fact that a group of modern scientists attempted to build a pyramid out next to the real one using modern technologies, and after something like 100 days, succeeded in building one about 1/40 of the size of the real one????’

Well, again a classic example of wilful ignorance. I’m sure there have been a number of experiments like these, but the major one that I’m aware of, the NOVA pyramid-building experiment took 40 days to build a pyramid measuring 20ft high. However, they attempted to use mainly ancient technologies, they only had a team of 44 workmen, a short time period, and a total lack of experience in pyramid building. And it was just an experiment—they weren’t trying to build a real pyramid! Egypt had a state-controlled system capable of acquiring and organizing the necessary people and resources. The Egyptians would have used thousands of workers and taken many years to build a proper pyramid, and just because we aren’t building them too doesn’t prove that it was humanely impossible.

The pyramids of Giza form the belt of Orion

A theory proposed by Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert, notes that the pattern formed by the layout of the pyramids is virtually identical to the three belt stars of the constellation Orion. If one considers the details of the Orion correlation it seems likely that it is pure coincidence. Orion’s belt is a famous star formation partly because of the natural simplicity of its layout. The arrangement of the Giza pyramids in that pattern was probably simply because it offered the best sight lines. Basically the pyramids are laid out in a diagonal line, rather than blocking each other. Khafre built his pyramid after his father Khufu built the Great Pyramid and very cleverly situated his smaller pyramid on the higher part of the plateau so as to actually make his appear bigger than his father’s!

Bauval and Gilbert further pressed the Orion comparison by using computer software to pinpoint the date in ancient history when the alignment of the pyramids would have exactly mirrored the constellation Orion in the sky. They claim this conjunction occurred precisely in 10,450 BC and therefore this is the true date of the building of the pyramids by aliens, before the rise of Egyptian civilization. However, there is absolutely no evidence that the pyramids existed before the Egyptians did. There is overwhelming evidence that they are the cultural, religious, and political products of the early Egyptian state. The Giza pyramids were built during the 4th dynasty, which probably dates to around 2575-2450 BC.

Radiocarbon dating, which is unfortunately not always that accurate, was done on the Great Pyramid several times in the 1980s and 90s, (initially funded by the Edgar Cayce Foundation, another group that wanted the pyramids to date to 10,500 BC, believing them to be remnants of Atlantean society!). The radiocarbon dates for the Great Pyramid ranged from 2660 to 3809 BC, slightly older than the historical dates previously assumed. Also, the great cedar boat found buried beside the Great Pyramid was radiocarbon dated to about 2,600 BC. So the pyramids certainly do not date from 10,500 BC!

So yes, the Egyptians, not aliens, built the pyramids!

Pyramid building became a great cultural tradition of the Egyptian and about 30 key pyramids were built, not including all the accompanying satellite or queens’ pyramids, over a span of more than 800 years—remarkable monuments, for which the Egyptians deserve the credit.

The theory that aliens built the pyramids is built on fanciful notions, misinformation, and a wilful ignorance that completely disregards any scholarly research that contradicts the theory. Alien theorists have barely anything to support their idea other than the tactic of attacking the uncertainty of Egyptologists over the details of the building process. They prey on the people who find inspiration in the concepts of the pyramids and alien life and use them to fuel publicity for their sensationalist books and television programmes. Both ‘Is there Life elsewhere in the universe?’ and ‘How were the pyramids built?’ are questions worthy of being asked, but they belong to separate spheres of research and different periods of history, and should be kept that way. Zahi Hawass, the head of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Egypt and the Director of the Giza Pyramids Excavation, says of the people who believe in alien theories, ‘People like to dream. If you meet someone who is not an archaeologist, they love to dream…but you have to know a little bit about reality.’ While reality might not involve conspiracy theories or UFOs, it can still be thrilling to learn about the real people behind their creation.

We shouldn’t rob ourselves of feeling pride in the pyramids as a human achievement. In building these monumentally inspiring constructions, our ancestors built the foundations of civilization. We shouldn’t betray their ingenuity with our ignorance, but celebrate it by continuing to build upon the intellectual developments and inventions that made the pyramids possible.

References:
Arnold, Dieter. 1991. Building in Egypt. Pharaonic Stone Masonry. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Aston, B., etc. 2000. ‘Stone’ in Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, eds. Shaw and Nicholson. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Edwards, I.E.S. 1985. The Pyramids of Egypt. New York & London: Viking Penguin.
Lehner, M. 1985. ‘The Development of the Giza Necropolis: The Khufu Project’. MDAIK 41, 109-143.
Lehner, M. 1997. The Complete Pyramids. London, Thames and Hudson, Ltd.
Quirke, Stephen. 1990. The Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom. New Malden: Sia Publishing.

Websites consulted:

http://www.outerworlds.com/likeness/aliens/aliens.html

http://netscientia.com/egypt.html

http://www.thekeyboard.org.uk/Who%20built%20the%20pyramids.htm

http://www.csicop.org/si/9909/fox.html

172 Responses to “Why the aliens did NOT build the pyramids”

  1. on 24 Aug 2007 at 5:58 pmPier

    “…..people like to believe in things, things that are much bigger than themselves, whether it’s god or aliens.”

    It’s true, I think sadly true…..

  2. on 25 Aug 2007 at 5:17 amMaryanne Gabbani

    This is a terrific post. I have a million books on pyramids, but it’s great to find something like this. I take people out on riding tours around pyramids and chat with them about how they were built and what the world around them looked like at the time….things that are somehow easier to get your head around on a horse than stepping out of an airconditioned bus.

  3. on 26 Aug 2007 at 3:23 amJoe

    yhea.
    Makes sense. Like there is no god.
    Life is made up of molecules, and it is an accident.
    Scientist like you would have made the sky dull grey.
    Your view is typical: you just don’t mention stuff that don’t fit in the official theory.

    Easy one: built-in hidden shafts in the pyramid. Just to spice things up for the builders?

  4. on 26 Aug 2007 at 3:30 pmRene O"Deay

    I like this. Great essay. Good points.

  5. on 26 Aug 2007 at 6:52 pmNate Turner

    Outstanding summary. When people learn I am interested in the early history of Egypt (I am a biologist by training and now work in information technology) they usually assume that I subscribe to the alien intervention myth. Actually what interests me is how, over a few hundred years, Egypt re-invented itself … and I doubt any aliens were involved.

    There certainly are mysteries, and I’m sure errors in current explanations. The way to move toward knowledge, however, is not to bring in hypothetical aliens, but to study the humans who accomplished so much so long ago.

    -oz

  6. [...] No other ancient civilization is so universally recognized and yet so thoroughly misunderstood. Sadly, Egyptologists are often so frustrated by this that they want nothing to do with the situation; it’s not just a matter of educating people, it’s completely reeducating them—trying to reverse the damage caused by ‘The Mummy’ and even the Discovery Channel. [link]   [...]

  7. on 27 Aug 2007 at 3:00 pmUFOMystic » Alien Pyramids? Nah…

    [...] Here’s a lengthy piece on why aliens weren’t involved in the construction of Egypt’s pyramids. This well-argued article won’t please those that adhere to the so-called “Ancient Astronaut” scenario; however, the author does make a strong case for a down-to-earth explanation. [...]

  8. on 28 Aug 2007 at 9:33 pmIzzy

    This is a fantastic article-very well written, concise, very nicely summarised and informative. I assume you refer to the pyramid builders as just workers and not slaves-I don’t believe the ‘mids were built by slaves either. I think they were almost like voluntary workers-they wanted to build them and felt proud to do so-even if it was a back breaking and dangerous job!
    Another thing to remember is that the Egyptians had a lot more time on their hands than modern civilisation. Life moved at a slower pace back then and they had the patience to put their effort and energy into building pyramids and other monuments. It took time, but they had time. I think I remember reading that the bulk of the building took place during the flood season, which meant farmers were off work, so to keep themselves occupied, they built pyramids.

    I can’t wait to see your article about Egyptian innovations that are still around today. We hear so much about the innovations from Greece and Rome, and maybe Mesepotamia and China which are still around today but not much about the legacy of ancient Egypt, other than it’s obvious impact and inspiration on the arts and architecture. I always thought the 24 hour day was a Sumerian invention though, and I also remember reading that the idea that the Pythagorean triangle was first found by ancient Egyptians using a knotted rope triangle is actually a myth, perpetrated by the ancient Greeks, and that there’s no evidence for it otherwise…I saw that on a blog about maths for kids, but I lost the link…

    Anyway, I must say that I love your blog! It’s one of the best Egypt blogs out there.

  9. on 28 Aug 2007 at 10:45 pmSkippyJones

    Much of Margaret’s writing here is well reasoned though I was disappointed in her contempuous strawman arguments. I can assure you that Bauval, Hancock and West are NOT arguing that the pyramids were BUILT in 10,500 BC – rather they argue that certain symbology on the Giza plateau points to that time period as a special time. Margaret has mischaracterized the Orion’s belt hypothesis as well as the alignment of the three pyramids – for the fascinating thing is that the third pyramid is offset from the others, just as Orion’s belt is, and just as Orion’s belt runs alongside the Milky Way so too do the pyramids run alongside the Nile – forming, as it were, a Mirror of the Heavens. The ancient Egyptians were deeply religious, astronomical and mytho-poetic in their writing and thinking and practices. It is not unreasonable to investigate the links between their mythology and the constellations and their structures. Bauval etc. may ultimately be incorrect in their theories, but they do not deserve the contemptuous mischaracterization that Margaret saddles them with here. There are still deep mysteries in Egypt, and their understanding calls for those who can engage the complexities of metaphor, symbology and religion to understand how they map onto the dry analysis that so many egyptologists confine themselves to. Bauval should be applauded.

  10. on 28 Aug 2007 at 10:54 pmSkippyJones

    Let me also add: Bauval is definitely NOT arguing that ALIENS built the pyramids. C’mon. Be reasonable. The only really controversial thing that John Anthony West and geologist Schoch argue for is that the Sphinx was built much earlier than the pyramids – that the egyptians *restored* instead of built the Sphinx. There is evidence both scientific (clear water erosion patterns) and circumstantial (why is the sphinx’s head SO much smaller than his body – as though it is a different structure actually – the weathering patterns don’t match, nothing). Show me true evidence that defeats Schoch’s water erosion argument….they aren’t arguing that aliens built the Sphinx…only that they just don’t know….the erosion patterns are a true scientific mystery (and NOT caused by flooding of the Nile, which would put the patterns upwards)…and the symbology arguments..the Sphinx (lion) pointing towards Leo constellation in 10,500 BC etc are circumstantial, but quite fascinating when you take the time to immerse yourself in egyptian and ancient belief.

  11. on 29 Aug 2007 at 4:22 pmMargaret

    Izzy, Nate, Rene, Maryanne: Thank you so much for the kind words! I’m glad that you found it interesting and I appreciate your comments!

    SkippyJones: I apologize for misrepresenting Bauval, Hancock and West’s arguments- I only looked at a few websites and apparently they were very misleading in their information. As soon as I get a chance, I will do some further research and correct the post. Perhaps I was overly dismissive about Orion’s belt, but I simply wanted to state was that even if there was link between the the constellation and the pyramids, there is no reason to suppose the connection is extraterrestrial based. You put it very well yourself that for the Egyptians, religion and astronomy were deeply interconnected. Believe me, I do appreciate the incredibly rich complexities of Egyptian symbolism, religion, and belief systems, but they were also very practical people too and it’s good to keep both these sides in mind.

    Joe: Wow, of course it’s obvious that shafts *must* mean that aliens built the pyramids! We should ignore all of the overwhelming evidence that indicates that the Egyptians made them, just because we aren’t certain what the shafts are! Seriously though, I didn’t see the shafts mentioned in the alien theory websites I looked at, so I didn’t include them in the post. When I have time, I’ll add in a section addressing the issue.

  12. on 29 Aug 2007 at 6:25 pmIzzy

    I too agree with there possibly being some astronomical alignments in pyramids and other monuments. Even if the Giza pyramids are not aligned with Orion or that it’s coincidence that the two patterns are similar, it doesn’t mean that the Egyptians were not interested in what was up there, because the stars were very important in Egyptian belief, and that’s got nothing to do with little green men! There are many references to a stellar afterlife in early pyramid texts and Orion was the constellation of Osiris. Sirius was used to mark the year-and was the star of Isis and the flood, and the circumpolars were where the dead pharaohs were said to reside because they never set-they never died.
    Which brings me to the shafts-I think they were symbolic shafts aligned to certain constellations (I think the northern shafts aligned with circumpolar stars, the southern ones with Orion and Sirius) so that the ka was able to ascend to the heavens. But it was purely symbolic.

    Personally I also think Bauval has some very valid points to make and some interesting theories concerning Egyptian astronomical beliefs, even if they are not very well accepted by general academia. It’s just a shame that some of the more extreme alien theorists hijack these valid astronomical theories, saying that it’s evidence of ‘alien intervention’ when in fact, it’s merely just ancient mankind’s wonder at the sheer enormity and beauty of the night sky. Mankind has always been fascinated and humbled by the universe and continues to be…

    As for the sphinx’s erosion…I don’t believe it was caused by rainfall during the old kingdom (because Egypt was definitely in an arid climate by then) or that it was built 10000 years ago. I have my own idea which I’ll comment on another time…

  13. on 29 Aug 2007 at 6:47 pmSkippyJones

    Margaret: What a thoughtful reply. And yes, you are absolutely right that we must keep the Egpytian’s practicality, and the irrefutable strength of scientific method, in mind. The theories of the ‘alternative’ egyptologists and archeaoastronomists are presented by the authors themselves in such a simple, elegant and exciting way, which makes them quite seductive theories. Alas, though, on closer inspection many of their claims are lacking in rigour and the orion correlation is somewhat tenuous, as well as the theory’s extrapolation to other ancient sites such as Angkor Watt (which it is claimed mirrors the constelation of Draco). There *is* a resemblance, but it is not precise, and the builders could certainly have made it precise. Fragments of correlative patterns can be found in almost any data set. The monuments of New York City mirror the heavens also, so long as one is selective as to which monuments and which constellations and at which times. Nonetheless, I think Bauval’s correlation theory is an exciting idea, and so long as it inspires careful investigation, a potentially promising one – what I hope is that the upcoming generation of gifted and dedicated egpytologists like yourself can find themselves as inspired by the unorthodox as they are fierce in guarding the conventional. I would be truly interested in your classical and critical take on the recently termed ‘symbolist’ school of egyptology. I have enjoyed reading through your blog. Best Regards, SkippyJones

  14. on 30 Aug 2007 at 2:03 amangel

    with all the babble i see in the comments and answers it’s no wonder people turn to the simple theories of Aliens, it’s much more easy to except in laymens terms. When commentaries by people who think they are lumenaries in the subject. The other day i was helping my three year old grandson with some leggo blocks and helped him build a pyramid so i guess that means i am an alien.

  15. on 30 Aug 2007 at 2:25 amangel

    to much babble of the same info i was fed in college , to many unanswerd questions ,to many mysteries which leaves fertile ground for theorist to speculate and formulate fantastic stories and ideas. All that you have shown and explained can be found in texts which by the way are also theories because there are no proven facts to any of them. Many can write about mathamatic figures ,star alignments,haevy stone placements, slaves carrying blocks for i don’t know how many miles for 23 years????? I mean we have got to get back down to Earth.
    Eventually some one will come along and give us the real story . Untill then i guess we will have to listen to all the crackpots.

  16. on 30 Aug 2007 at 10:32 amMargaret

    Angel: Why are aliens a simpler explanation? Humans are much easier to understand. What evidence at all do we have of who these aliens were, how they travelled here, what tools they used to build, why they built them? There is nothing. For every mysterious aspect of their building left unexplained by the ‘human theory’, there are twice as many left unexplained by the alien theory. As you said yourself, we have to get back down to Earth! There is lots of evidence here on Earth that humans were responsible- how can you ignore that all? Why do you find it so hard to believe? The world is filled with incredible works of art and architecture made by real people, why should the pyramids be any different? People can achieve utterly amazing things when they really try.

  17. on 30 Aug 2007 at 2:45 pmangel

    You are right on all accounts indeed you

    are Shesa-t Shesau and Steppu

    Angel
    Thes-usfu

  18. [...] See this page for the complete post. [...]

  19. on 02 Sep 2007 at 7:57 pmJohn

    I am fully ready to believe aliens built the pyramids just as soon as someone definitively proves aliens exist and that they have visited the Earth. Until then, I’ll continue to hold that mere humans managed the task.

  20. on 22 Nov 2007 at 2:25 pmPCH

    the real question would be who built the gizah pyramids, not the others.

    yeah, great argument… however, summerian texts and tablets mention the 3 pyramids long before khufu or sneferu or imhotep.
    carbon dating is irelevant. cannot date the pyramid itself, only some objects related to it.
    the discending inner shaft of the great pyramid, that has been closed for thousands of years, was left unduplicated into the smaller pyramids made by egyptians. why? becouse they didn’t know it was there.

    wet-mud brute-force pulling of 2,5 tones of stone-blocks may work in theory on plain ground. you tell me how they lifted those blocks to the height of the pyramid. and while you’re at it, explain the water corusion on the sphynx. or the flying vehicles at abydos. or the light-bulb.

    good luck with that!

  21. on 22 Nov 2007 at 2:37 pmPCH

    oh, i almost forgot… how about the diorith sarcophagus? or the perfectly polished diorith statues? how did they do them?

  22. on 23 Nov 2007 at 5:25 pmG

    personally i think a hell of a lot of this could be resolved by looking into egypts culture properly, as many of the comments mention (both by margaret and others). no-one can really state for certain who built them because ….. we aren’t there now. so everything beyond that is just theory, though obviously some theorys have more actual facts behind them than certain extraterrestrial theories. there are many sites on earth which have been assumed as such, like Tiahuanaco and the Nazca lines. people like to assume we’re better than all our ancestors just because we have electrcity, cars and can get round the world a fair bit quicker than we used to.oh well.

    btw, PCH, when u can read those sumerian texts for urself with 100% accuracy, u can comment on them.

    Peace out

    G

  23. on 24 Nov 2007 at 2:16 pmPCH

    @G
    the sumerian texts i was talking about are actually drawings. dont need special education to see 3 pyramids as just exactlly what they are – 3 pyramids.
    im not saying that et bult them, but the scientific comunity must accept that there is a problem with this. alien theory, as far-fetched as it is, may be more plausible than endorsing that a mangnificent civilization just popped-up from nowwhere in the middle of the bronze age without any external intervention – whatever external may mean. its not the case with egyptian only, also the akkadian and sumerians. the signs of such intervention from an advanced people are not so rare in ancient history. the fact that there are things made thousands of years ago that we cannot explain nore duplicate yet may change our perspective a little.

  24. on 24 Nov 2007 at 5:25 pmMargaret

    PCH, there’s probably no point in arguing since you’ve already made up your mind to ignore all the overwhelming evidence for the Egyptians building the pyramids as opposed to the zero evidence for aliens, but as G accurately points out it’s really wrong to assume that people were primitive back then! If you really learn about the cultures, you know that society was becoming quite complex and accomplished in the lead-up to the building of the pyramids. They had exactly the same brains as we do, so why couldn’t they do it? Here’s an example of sophisticated Egyptian art from before the pyramids; I think it’s pretty impressive: http://mcclungmuseum.utk.edu/permex/egypt/egn-nar2.jpg

    And us not being able to duplicate what they built means nothing. Take a look at these early Egyptian stone vessels from before the pyramids: http://tinyurl.com/2d24jt I’d be willing to bet that neither you nor I could reproduce these, but it’s just because we rely different sorts of skills these days!

    I’d be interested in knowing exactly what these Sumerian texts are that you mentioned, since I studied ancient Sumeria at university and don’t recall them having anything to do with the pyramids. It wouldn’t be surprising though to have pyramid-like depictions, since they built their own stepped structures called ziggurats.

    Yes, carbon dating can’t date the pyramids themselves, but dating the stuff around them gives us yet one more piece of helpful evidence to add to the rest.

    I’m not sure what differing shaft layout proves though. All of the pyramids have different layouts for the shafts and chambers, even the two other supposedly ‘alien-built’ ones at Giza but I don’t think it means anything really.

    I don’t know exactly how they lifted the blocks but ramps or pulleys would have worked. Doesn’t mean that they couldn’t have done it just because I can’t prove it by going back in a time machine.

    As for the Sphinx (spelled with an ‘i’ not a ‘y’) and the supposed water erosion (not corusion as you put it, or even corrosion), I’m not a geologist so I can’t properly comment, but the Sphinx was carved in situ from the existing natural bedrock itself so I don’t see why some of the weathering couldn’t have happened to the rock before the Sphinx was made from it.

    I’m not sure what exactly you mean by the ‘flying vehicles at Abydos’ or the ‘lightbulb’ but if you’re talking about the supposed hieroglyphic representations of a helicopter and submarine in Seti I’s temple at Abydos, then I can tell you that I’ve seen them myself and it’s obvious what they are to Egyptologists or anyone actually familiar with hieroglyphs. There’s already a good explanation of it at this site: http://www.ufocom.org/pages/v_us/m_archeo/Abydos/abydos.html

    Finally, you mention ‘diorith’ sarcophagi and statues (by the way, I think you mean diorite unless you were using the German word). First of all, it’s entirely possible to cut very hard stone using percussion tools of the exact same stone, so it’s not really rocket science, and while they’re difficult to cut, they polish up better than any other stone. For more information, there’s an excellent chapter on stoneworking in the book Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technologies and some basic info at this UCL website: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/stone/stoneworking.html

    I hope that helps answer some of your questions. It sounds like you’re pretty firmly entrenched in your beliefs, but all I can ask is that if you want other people to keep an open mind about who built the pyramids, you shouldn’t just dismiss the Egyptians either!

  25. on 25 Nov 2007 at 1:55 pmPCH

    Margaret
    thanks alot for the answer. since i am not a native english speaker please forgive the errors of spelling.
    actually, i’m not at all “firmly entranched” – as u put it – in believing that ET built them, however anyone could ask the same from one who believes that egyptian – and no others – built them: not to be firmly entranched in believing above all doubt that a society in the middle of the bronze age managed to build such complex structures that easily dwarfs anything else of that era in terms of technology, management, human and material resources. i’m not dismissing egyptyans on the subject – i am just saying that they had some pretty big help from someone.

    i will look up that sumerian tablet and i will come back with an answer. however, the shape of a ziggurat is quite different from a giza piramyd.

    i am familiar with the explanation about abydos hieroglyphic representations and just doesn’t make much sense to me. try drawing something on a piece of paper then put somebody else to draw anything over your drawings: how many times do you suppose that the result will be perfectly shaped representations of some things? not only one, but 3 or even 4? that should be an amazing coincidence.

    im not sure that ramps or pulleys would have worked. they would be themselves a challenge comparable to the pyramyds.

    “zero evidence for aliens” – well, some choose to speak about aliens, i choose to speak about advanced techology intervention. the evidence of this is not at all zero. beginning with the darwinian missing link to extaordinary knowledge of astronomy and more accurate calendars than we use today – even u must admit that things just dont add up in ancient history. its just beyond common sense – at least in my mind – that people that didnt know the wheel just happen to guess all the planets of the solar system with their corect sizes, or built megalitic structures with remacable astronomic features that we cannot duplicate today with our state-of-the-art computers and metal cranes. im not talking about the piramyds only, but about all the megalitic structures around the world.

    PS: im not an Egyptologist, i’m an architect. all i know about the subject is from what i learned in college and what i studied for myself – since i’m quite interested in ancient history. i may not know hieroglyphs or cuneiforms, but i know buildings. there is no way the bronze-age man could build the great piramyd in 20 years with bronze, wood, string and sand. not 1 million people in 100 years. the effort would be huge – not only buildind the thing, but designing it and managing all the resources, the workers and everything else connected to such an incredible enterprise. 20 years for the great piramyd is like building the new wembley stadium in 1 month. it just cannot be done.

  26. on 28 Nov 2007 at 6:52 pmsteven ramos

    ur theory of egyptian pyramids is obviously false there is no way any human whether its 10 or 10 million can possibly build a pyramid out of 2,500,000 rocks that weigh tons with out any technology just pullin them with ropes is a ridiculous theory i am not an alien believer myself but i can say there was another force that helped build the egyptian pyramids no matter how u feel on this situation u know there had to be another cause in the production of pyramids in egypt and in your answers to the questions above has plenty of puns in them u used storys to avoid answering the question and if u think u can turn me to a believer of normal humans building these pyramids feel free to message me at the email address above and the discovery channel does not corrupt the mind with pseudoscience it is their theory on the production of pyramids and is far more believable than yours

  27. on 29 Nov 2007 at 7:42 amGerard Lally

    I seem to remember that the argument to aliens was originally put forward, mainly by Von Däniken (1968), on the basis of Manetho, Fragment 2.4 (Syncellus) which refers to an argument by Panodoros concerning

    “οι δέ εγρήγοροι, κατελθόντες επί τού καθολικού κοσμικού χιλιοστού έτους, συναναστραφέντες τοίς άνθροποις”

    However, Panodoros, although Egyptian himself, was here explicitly attempting a synthesis with certain extremely doubtful Jewish sources, such as Genesis 6,4.

    It’s fun to delve into ancient texts, but I wouldn’t want to confuse fact and fantasy. The Egyptians were a very proud people. They were not into being pushed around by aliens of any kind; Nubians, Libyans or even Wise Men from the East.

    They credited their gods, such as Osiris, with substantial assistance, of course, and if a person as apparently intelligent as particle physicist John Polkinghorne can promote traditionalist Christian theology in the 21st century, then we are all clearly capable of believing anything. When Lewis Carroll’s Alice Through the Looking Glass (Ch. 5) laughs and says “one can’t believe impossible things,” the White Queen wisely replies “I dare say you haven’t had much practice. When I was your age I always did it for half an hour a day. Why, sometimes I’ve believed as many as six impossible things before breakfast!”

    The harm of such philosophical Idealism, however, is that it leads to misjudgement in practice. If, for example, you choose to believe, as did the ancient Egyptians, that the brain is a bag of pus which swells up inside the head after death, then you may still be able to mummify corpses, but you won’t be much good at assisting the very impressive and human science of Neurology.

    Egyptology, like Neurology, has now evolved into something like an exact science, which may perhaps explain why professional Egyptologists like Margaret are so poorly tolerant of theories such as those of Von Däniken.

  28. on 30 Nov 2007 at 11:35 pmMargaret

    Thank you very much for your comments Gerard. The eloquence of your response speaks for itself and I’m sure the Egyptians who valued ‘perfect speech’ so highly would agree.

  29. on 02 Jan 2008 at 10:39 pmabdel-rahman

    This is a very accurate and probable way that you have used to describe these so called “misunderstandings”. I truly also do beleive that the pyramids can not be built even with the modern technology we have today, the pyramids would require so much work that after the base feature is done, everyone would be tired. Also a comment to “pch” it is possible that they could have been built using the aged ways of transportations and by having loads of people watching and helping one another. There was many people that helped build this historic and legendary site and many ask “How did they have shelter and food?”. This i beleive is just a question that you can answer using common sense, The egyptians were one of the first to allow slavery but they beleived that these slaves should be treated well and should have the choice to let their children to be free if they wanted. I am very happy for this accurate peice of work and thank you.

    -Abdelrahman,24(Egyptologist)

  30. on 05 Jan 2008 at 1:18 amJavance

    What about pyramids being on mars? There’s conspiracy on that? We can’t possibly know the truth about everything. There’s no such thing as knowing absolute truth especially if you don’t have the power to reach that type of knowledge. Who knows the same people that believe pyramids weren’t made by humans believe that probably humans were once dumb ape ancestors. That’s maybe why one might speculate aliens help or ad with the knowledge. I know humans like to believe there’s something greater than them, but when it comes down to it to think that we are the only intelligent living beings in the universe is just crazy. Believing that humans never had any contact with aliens to help discover the crazy things our ancestors did or the crazy things were doing right now is just irrational, but there’s no such thing as an all around rational person. Well I might be wrong sometimes you have to think maybe we spend too much time looking at the stars, but instead we should be looking at ourselves or others that have conceal themselves on Earth. – Anyways I’m just going by my views my subjective/objective reality and maybe…the aliens are or have been living with us during mankind’s every step…Think about it. =l…=D

  31. on 05 Jan 2008 at 1:48 amJavance

    Maybe if we were all really intelligent humans well find out why we serve crazy leaders. Maybe they’re more intelligent than us and we are only left to believe were smart. The saying goes “The best slave is the slave who thinks he is free, and the greatest fool is the fool who thinks he is a wise man.” Who knows in order to stay in power you have to keep knowledge away from others as the saying goes…knowledge is power. Maybe aliens are too smart to leave evidence that they exist maybe they don’t want us to know they exist. With the same voice you can say “I believe humans rule the world”. You can say “I believe humans rule the world, but yet I have no proof for that explanation.” Everyone knows the media tells us all “true lies”. You can say that humans might just be too stubborn to believe that something that they can’t even fathom about can exist and rule over them without them even knowing or even guide them. I might just be crazy thinking too much for my own good. I know that our leaders don’t want us to be critical thinks or else all there evil schemes towards us will be reveal. Should certain aphorisms of philosophy be a wake up call to think out of the ordinary. One aphorism I’ve always known was “The truth is stranger than fiction.” Maybe it is and were just not ready for it, not having the guts to embrace it, or were just too weak to realize it…Think about it…Go figure. =P…=D…=l.

  32. on 24 Mar 2008 at 12:13 pmRita Ramsey

    I enjoyed reading all this information but what I still cannot get to grips with is, what happened to these creative intellegent Eqyptians as they do not appear to be here buiding such wonderful sites/buildings any longer

  33. on 24 Mar 2008 at 12:26 pmMargaret

    I think every civilization rises and falls in strength and creativity- the Romans aren’t building great cities anymore, and the British Empire no longer controls most of the world. It’s rather extraordinary that the ancient Egyptians were as powerful as they were for so many millennia!

  34. on 31 Mar 2008 at 9:15 pmOsamu

    Margaret, the eloquence of your response speaks for itself :”I’m not a geologist so I can’t properly comment (!!!), but the Sphinx was carved in situ from the existing natural bedrock itself so… I don’t see why… some of the weathering couldn’t have…”
    “I don’t know exactly how they lifted the blocks (!!!) but ramps or pulleys would have worked. Doesn’t mean that they couldn’t have done…”
    …Also doesn’t mean that all couldn’t done far more developed civilisation (not necessarily aliens but maybe not Egyptians). Exact science??? Exact science are for example mathematics, physics, chemistry…there it is not even possible to talking in terms like “I don’t know”…or “why not this …They had exactly the same brains as we do (haha, who prove that?), so why couldn’t they do it? (really scientific…)”
    BUT I’AM RIGHT (because I’am Egyptologist)! And you are wrong! Medicine (neurology etc.) is applied science, but this theory IS only another probability theory, like others, nothing more (but also nothing less). Naturally, today’s Egypt people want to think (and have economic and nation demands) that it was Egyptians. Also, Egyptologists like Margaret have to earn their (budget?) money.
    Perfect comments from Steven and Javance. Sorry for my basic English, but I think that basic message is understand. Do not ignore other approaches and declare it pseudoscientifical (technology, archicture, physics). Our brains (same as ancient Egyptians?) also worth.

  35. on 01 Apr 2008 at 12:14 pmMargaret

    Osamu, I fully accept your criticism that I can’t give absolute conclusive proof, though I would point out that we still have a fair bit of evidence in favour of the Egyptians. I’d wager that you don’t have conclusive proof that someone else built them and there’s certainly more proof of Egyptian involvement than of anyone else. I’m happy to keep an open mind concerning any evidence of this ‘far more developed civilization’ of which you speak. It would be very strange though if the only evidence they left were the pyramids themselves.

    I wouldn’t claim that archaeology is an exact science- we have limited evidence that survives from almost 5000 years ago, so it’s unsurprising that we have no absolutes.

    As for ancient Egyptian brains, they were most certainly modern. Anatomically modern Homo sapiens developed as early as over 160,000 years ago, and sophisticated thought had developed by 100,000 years ago (see for e.g. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article678145.ece ). The Egyptians produced a lot of other wonderful things at the same time as the pyramids were built (for example, this statue of the king ‘supposedly’ responsible for the building of the second pyramid at Giza: http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=46868&rendTypeId=4). If they were so skillful in stoneworking to create such a masterpiece, why is it so unbelievable that they could build a pyramid?

    I’m not a paid Egyptologist yet, so I’m not earning any money for my belief that the Egyptians built the pyramids. In fact, I’m sure that I could earn much much more money by writing that aliens did build the pyramids, since it’s a very popular theory and such books sell incredibly well. But while people criticize Egyptologists for not being rigorous enough with their theories and their lack of absolute proof, I would remind other theorists that perhaps they could apply the same criticism to themselves. Thanks for your comments.

  36. on 01 Apr 2008 at 7:45 pmGerard Lally

    ‘Exact Sciences’ like Physics and Chemistry are based, at the deepest level, on probability, not any kind of ideal absolute. This is because tiny fundamental ‘particles’ can’t make much of a dent in space-time, so they ‘float round’ on the ‘surface’ of it, without classical attributes like exact position. You can only say what they are ‘probably’ doing at any one point.

    The exactitude of Mathematics is open to misuse – for instance, Hooke’s Law (relating the extension of an ‘elastic’ body to the force applied to it) cannot be pictured as a simple straight line on a graph. Lee Smolin (2006), in ‘The Trouble With Physics’ (page 30), rightly says that “…mathematical beauty can be misleading. Simple observations made from the data are often more important.”

    Given, then, that we are operating in a world of necessary inexactness and probability, the next requirement is to calculate accordingly. Now a very low probability, say, of one in a trillion, is actually closer to zero than what most people mean when they say ‘zero’. For example, I may validly predicate of my beer glass that it is ‘completely empty’, but that is only approximately true. There will almost certainly be a few drops of beer left in it, corresponding to a probability of finding beer of perhaps one in a hundred (i.e. about 10 millilitres per litre). Therefore, although my glass is empty, I might just find some more beer in there!

    I may however, with much greater assurance, state that I will not find that aliens built the pyramids, though I do accept that some oppressed people wish it to be true. They want to believe that somewhere in the universe, an invincible superhuman power is watching us benevolently, and will eventually liberate us. Some call this power ‘aliens’, others call it ‘God’. Thus they begin with their ideal, and then impose it on the evidence, when they should really begin with the evidence, or (in the case of aliens etc.) the utter absence of it.

    I think Margaret is wrong to “keep an open mind” about such low probabilities. The phrases she and her colleagues use in connection with the pyramids, such as “I don’t see why…”, “could have…”, “I don’t know exactly…”, etc. refer to matters which are not “only another probability theory” but whose likelihood is so great as to have serious persuasive force.

  37. on 02 Apr 2008 at 12:12 amMargaret

    Thank you very much Gerard for clarifying the ‘exactness’ of science and the rest of your elegantly logical comments.

    To clarify my own words I must admit that I phrased my above statement incorrectly; what I intended to say was that I would be happy to keep an open mind *if* there was actually any evidence to support an alternate theory. However, as far as I can see there is only supposition and a disregard for any actual archaeological evidence.

  38. on 02 Apr 2008 at 7:57 pmGerard Lally

    Thanks, Margaret.

    The strongly felt need for superhuman assistance is nowhere better illustrated than in the ‘Tale of the Eloquent Peasant’ itself. Grimal (1992, 1994, p. 149) says

    “… the final argument presented by the peasant is the recourse to Anubis, whose influence is already suggested by the peasant’s own name: Khuy-n-inpw (‘one protected by Anubis’). Does this mean that justice on earth is maintained only because the tribunal of the gods fills humans with fear for their lives?”

  39. on 30 Apr 2008 at 7:58 amHM

    Aliens did NOT build the pyramids. It was built by many skilled egyptians who, without machines or technology managed to build great structures like the pyramids! Instead of trying to fantasise aliens building pyramids we should be thinking about not only how great they actually are but also how great the people who built them must have been!! I mean seriously!!!

  40. on 22 May 2008 at 12:10 pmRampage

    My own personal belief is that mankind alone did not build the pyramids, if at all, despite the hard sell on this website.
    any way, if mankind did build the pyramids then they were built by slaves (you can call them a work force all you want) overseen by a tyrant, in which case there should be no pride in these “human” achievement’s as they are a sick monument to tyranny and slavery. Nothing at all to be proud of!
    (I wonder how many slaves er…workers, craftsmen, died in agony building those massive tombs for a few rich kings?)

  41. on 14 Jul 2008 at 5:13 amRoger

    Some of the replies are based upon a LACK of evidence. Some people are evidently not satisfied with a “I don’t know and I may or may not know in the future” answer. They evidently feel a need to make something up because they MUST have an answer. Humans are quite capable of inventing something completely new. A. Einstein’s theories were incredibly new and decidedly different. So far, the’ve fared pretty well.

    Rampage: Tyranny and slavery. You are looking at it from today’s perspective which is historically out of context. I am quite proud that humans were able to make great achievments in the past as well as the present, and future.

  42. on 02 Aug 2008 at 5:48 pmmemmy

    No, The actual execution must have been by humans- slaves- isrealites.But I think the concept/idea, Plan and know how must have come from some one extra ordinary – not human.
    Perhaps Aliens

  43. on 10 Aug 2008 at 3:45 amhuh

    how do u exlain drawings of ufos & aliens on egyptian walls?maybe egyptians did build the pyrimids but you cant say aliens didnt help ….theres no proof of aliens helping but alike..theres no proof egyptians did it without help either……its a lose lose situation…..find sumat else to post..you cnt prove it so why post it?..l..

  44. on 09 Sep 2008 at 7:22 amtae

    very helpful, I like to have an open mind though, and I wonder if you actually believe in a higher power? Because if you don’t you would have a strong bias against the alien theory, and if you do you shouldn’t be so precoccupied with something so trivial

  45. on 12 Oct 2008 at 5:04 amCraig

    The major problem I have is How they got the stones to the Pyramid. I have others but will tackle this one first. Everyone who believes in the Egyptians built them, say they used the nile and transported the Stones using some type of boat, barge, raft. But think about that logically. Do you realize the size of the boat or wooden structure would have to be…to float a 20 to 30 ton rock in water! And that the boat would have to have some type of door that was leak proof, since how would they get the stone on the boat? You are definately not going up a ramp and dropping it in! 2nd) Dragging the stones across land using these wooden bases or crates. The weight of the stones would cause so much friction and drag that the wood would either crumble or just dig into the ground. Try pulling a refrigerator across your yard using wood. Wooden pallets crumble if pulled along the floor holding 200 lbs in warehouses. Holding a 20 ton block would destroy it instantly. 3rd) Getting these stones on the higher levels of the pyramid would require ramps. Which most believe they built. Yet these ramps would have to be nearly 2 miles long at the highest peaks, because of the angle. They definately were not pulling 20 ton rocks up a 45 degree angle. And the amount of workers is really moot, because of surface area. A rock that is 10 feet wide and long has only so much space to be occupied. You could only fit a small amount of Egyptians around the block. Even if 40 and I dont think there is room for 40, but if 40 Egyptians were able to get a grip to raise the block…they would not be enough of them to even budge it. 40 x 200 lbs equals 8000 pounds and that is if they could each lift 200 lbs. Levers may help budge the rock but not move it in a useful manner.
    Then you state Eqyptians were very smart. This may be true but who is to say where they aquired some of their knowledge. Our Universe is so big and most people believe we are not alone. If Aliens were to land, I am sure landing back then would have been much easier since the people of that day didnt have weapons. Peaceful landing would have been easier. These Aliens could have given them knowledge or devices to make things easier. But just because they were smarter doesn’t make it more likely they built them. The tools and the land around them is what makes the “Building of the Pyramids” so unlogical. Brains alone cannot do it. If Einstein was trapped in a raft with nothing and a fisherman was trapped in another raft with nothing…and they were both placed in the middle of the ocean. Who would survive longer?

  46. on 29 Oct 2008 at 3:02 pmIvan Jdrakov

    This is the worst information ever!

    If you only open up your mind, you’ll see that not only the pyramids could have been built by Aliens but many other things which we try to remake and call our own could well be made by Aliens! I’m not saying that your site is stupid, but some of the information is just purely made up! There is no record of how the pyramids were built, nor who built them. People didn’t write their names on the blocks! Why didn’t egyptians credit themselves for creating the pyramids if the actual building process was so long and difficult???
    BECAUSE THEY DIDN”T BUILD THEM ALONE!!!

  47. on 18 Nov 2008 at 6:25 pmBENJY

    after reading your argument i realize that maybe iv type an entire ten pages of bull shit on how aliens built the pyramids but awnser these two questions. Whats with all the pictures if aliens and everything in the tombs? and what about that fungus never seen before on earth they found in tuts chamber? NO ALIEN RELEVANCE STILL?
     well thankyou for your insight anyways

  48. on 10 Dec 2008 at 8:58 pmJean Pierre

    back in ’75 when I was visiting Greece, Crete island, I met a group of students who were investigating some ruins on the south side of the island. A few day later I had the chance to talk with the man in charge of the group, after a while, the discussion drifted toward egypt and the pre- pharaonian dynasties. Is that true that many of the monuments, stelas, pyramids and temples were erected before the first dynasty? And that a few site are as old as 12,500 years? wich is about 7,000 years older than the egyptologist believed. And according to what that man told us, that the “writing” used at that time, was not based on alphabetical icons but rather it was a mathematical inspired scheme of désignating objects?
    Thanks for your time and consideration.
    Regards, J P Tanguay

  49. on 03 Jan 2009 at 11:59 amalessandro bartolozzi

    Thank for your suggestions, but what do you think of the natrium-calcar process (calcare was dissoluted from sodium nitrate and then used as we do with cement),I watch a consisten video from an industrial chemist that show the entire process but I forget the name.
    Hoever the big blocks was undistingueable from the carved ones.
    On the estern layer is possible to see “dents”like some was flow out of a stamp.
    Thank,
    Alessandro

  50. on 15 Feb 2009 at 9:25 amPewaccevealen

    Hello.
    I’m new there
    Nice forum!

  51. on 09 Mar 2009 at 1:05 amTidgney

    Hi,

    Well i like looking into this and i believe that their are aliens out there, and so on. Not many Official UFO sightings i believe, however i look into this stuff in depth. Aliens as far as i would evidence back, have been visiting us since 160,000 years ago, and have been introducing modifications to human DNA.

    Religion, as introduced for the fact that we wouldnt go to war with each other which in effect had an opposite effect, and led to long believes.

    I feel yes, man may have helped in the buildings of pyramids, but theres so much calculations, theories behind the pyramids it surely cant be 1 civilisation. I mean, surely at this time we are beginning to gain understandings for alot of things, which you explain very well, with mathematics and such. But if this is the case, surely ‘alien beings’ i.e. not of earth origin. helped develop these to try keep the threat of wars between people away, it makes sense. I mean large structures unbelievable at the time would put fear into most, and more of a united front formed. Obviously it didnt, but it also shows why recent activity of UFO’s has gone up, alot more official sightings, due to less global wars happening and more of a peace sighted front between most (Not All).

    I mean yes, i dont study astronomy or egypts history/ancient history. But i think for the arguement to be better you should read up on alot of theories, involving alien beings, then it could be more of a fair stated arguement, as it seems very 1 sided.

    Thanks

    Martin.

  52. on 22 Mar 2009 at 11:27 pmIan

    FOOD FOR THOUGHT,
    If it was Egyptian technology that built the Pyramids, how come their building knowledge wasn’t passed on, not only that, the ramps to get the stones to the top of the pyramid would of had to be at least two miles long and fifty to sixty foot wide, because you say the sledges that carried the blocks was thirty six foot wide, not only that, how could you get enough men round the two and a half ton block to push it into place once you got to the top of the pyramid, that alone is puzzling?.

  53. on 24 Mar 2009 at 10:59 amvorlon32

    The ancient Egyptians new allot about basic engineering and construction. This guy found away to move heavy stone blocks using low tech methods, no UFOs or sorcery required.

    http://www.theforgottentechnology.com/

    As far as the drawings of aliens, they also worshiped the sun as a god and thought he went into the underworld every night on a barge to battle demons – but only if he could get past the giant serpent trying to eat him! Ancient folks were very religious and also worship animals as well. You would think that aliens would enlighten them and not just pile up a bunch of rocks and then just take off. I wouldn’t confuse their religions with UFOs or aliens.

  54. on 21 Apr 2009 at 1:29 pmTB

    A favourite argument of the “alien theory” defenders seems to be that there is no evidence as to who built the pyramids. May I point out to them that the workmen’s settlements, bakeries etc (equivalent of canteens, I suppose), tombs and other infrastructure have actually been found and are being excavated. The excavations also show that the workers were fed well and had access to the best medical care of the time!

    And of course there are the still somewhat experimental earlier pyramids (pyramid collapsing during construction, angles having to be changed because things went wrong, starting with mud-brick sized blocks etc. etc.)

    And may I ask, do the people who see UFOs in hieroglyphic inscriptions actually read Egyptian? If they don’t then it is a bit of a Rohrschach test thing – I could find depictions of aliens in the handwriting of some of my colleagues at work if I were so inclined!

  55. on 17 Jun 2009 at 10:47 pmTS

    It is depressingly typical that so many people, a number of whom have posted here, honestly believe that a civilisation that existed before us was capable of doing something which ‘modern’ society is not. How massively arrogant. How totally condescending.

    I hate to tell you this guys, but our ignorance how someone did something in the past doesn’t automatically mean that they didn’t do it themselves. Aliens? How about some extremely clever individuals, a boat-load of ingenuity and a gargantuan workforce?

    I’ve noticed a recurring theme about those here who dismiss the notion that the Egyptians built the pyramids. First, you work on the assumption that you, as individuals, know more about the practicalities of large scale stonemasonry and construction than people who did it for a living. You assume that if you don’t know how to do something, anyone who lived 4,000 years ago couldn’t possibly know either.

    Don’t get me wrong – I think the universe is full of possibilities and it would be a massive waste of space if life didn’t evolve on other planets. But seriously, aliens coming all the way here to build the pyramids? Some of you asked why humans would build them. Why would aliens?

    Oh and by the way, ‘aliens on tomb walls’ – I assume you’re referring to Amarna period artistic depictions of the royal family – it’s an artistic convention. It’s designed to communicate ideas which cannot be expressed in words. Did Picasso paint his subjects as they actually appeared? No. Does everyone think his subjects were actually aliens? No.

    And Benjy, what do you mean by a ‘fungus never before seen on earth’? Mention the mummy’s curse. Go on. I dare you.

  56. on 31 Aug 2009 at 6:12 pmamit prasad gupta

    i think that the aliens built the pyramids because no evidence has been found regarding the egyptians built such a well calculated structure,it requires even more advanced technology than we have today to build such a giant ancient megastructure.

  57. on 04 Dec 2009 at 4:35 pmAlessio Offreda

    The great pyramid was built in 22 years.. correct? That means each block weighing tons had to be cut, transported, and placed every 9 seconds.. 9 Seconds. We would have trouble building the great pyramid that percise today in 22 years.. So ur honestly trying to tell me that they build that with all human power? perfectly? And they ment to put it on the longest line of longitude and latitude right? Explain how it was built, in detail. Im dying to know.

    -Thanks

  58. on 16 Feb 2010 at 2:12 amNgoo Nam

    Our ancestors, human ancestors, built the pyramids.

    Just because no modern engineer or architect, that I know of, has come up with the technicalities of building them with ancient world technology and materials it doesn’t mean that one or many humans of the BC era couldn’t have concieve such engineering marvels!

    Just because the creators of the twin towers and the Seattle Space needle and the Eiffel tower did not think of creating pyramids with ancient world tech and materials does not mean the ancient engineers and people could not have built them.

    Just because the particle accelerator and atom bomb makers shake their heads as to how the pyramids were made does not mean people couldn’t have thought and built them (the pyramids).

    The proof?

    It’s there before your eyes!! The great pyramids stand before you in all its glory, withstanding centuries of earthquakes, storms, floods and other earthly calamities!

    No aliens, no gods, just plain old human ingenuity created the pyramids.

    Don’t believe all this nonsense about ETs dumbing down the human race. Don’t believe these modern people dumbing down the ancients and you!!

    Horrible! These modern people believing ETs only could have created the pyramids are dumbiing down you and the human race!!! Yeah, they are dumbing down your ancestors and your genes!!

    Believe in the powers of the human mind and the strength of the human body!!! Not ETs!

    Again, human ingenuity built the pyramids!

    Geeze!!

  59. on 20 Feb 2010 at 10:08 pmxphynxy

    It was refreshing to read all the above proposals, theories, rethoric answers and questions, this shows that the human brain is a wonderfull machine still fully untaped, as we all know. Curiosity? hunger for knowledge? will lead us one day to find a proper sense to all these lagoons of wisdom. Let’s keep searching, being curious, somehow the light will show one day at the end of our tunnel of ignorance. All scholars or not, should be humble enough to recognise that no one until now, has the “authority” to ascertain or deny what is beind discussed here. Cheers!

  60. on 17 Feb 2011 at 1:47 amBlaha

    This article is leaving out a lot of information that does support an alien “help” in building the pyramids, the most signifacnt pyramid being the great Pyramid of Giza…The great Pyramid of Giza itself is aligned at the furthest point latiude and longitude meaning it is aligned at the exact point of the center of all the land mass in the world. The corners also align almost perfectly with the four cardinal directions, which were not discovered or brought up yet. The Great pyramid weighs so much that it has to sit on top of a land mass stable enough to supoort its weight, and it so happens to sit on top of a section of land perfect for doing so when around it, other sections of land could not be able to. The Great pyramid was said to be built in 22 yrs or so, meaning these stones weighing between 2-25 tons would have had to be cut from the quarry, moved, and placed, one stone about every minute. It is mentioned logs could roll them. The stones from the quarry weigh a certai weight too heavy to do so easily. The stones would crush or definitely wear away the 5-10 logs being used to roll it by the time it reached the construction sight. Meaning, after each stone the 5-10 logs would need to be replaced, and since theres well over 100,00 stones in the great Pyramid, thats over half a million logs used. The idea of a ramp is also stated, yet to build a ramp to drag these stones on up to the top eventually the top of the Great Pyramid, the ramp itself would have required more stones that the pyramid itself. Theres egyptian hieroglyphics on the walls in some of the tunnels of the pyramids..how was this done with no light? theres insuffecient amounts of oxygen within these tunnels, especially towards the bottom and the end of these tunnels to breathe, let alone fuel a fire or a torch. Plus, if a torch or flame was used, there would leave ash or black sut residue atop the cielings of the tunnel, yet theres none there. Egyptians also may have been intelligent at this time because i am not doubting the intellect of man, but for a fact, there was no tools present to be able to make cuts on these stones of this precision and miniscul error. You can be smart, but if the tools dont work effectively, you still cant make a precise cut such as the ones on the Great pyramid. Also, another fact or thing to look at is at this time, all the continents were already seperated. How were the ideas of pyramid structures made by all types of cultures and tribes across the world. Same thing goes with heads of Easter Island, those too are seen all across the world, yet these civilizations did not have connection with eachother. Theres even more evidence but i feel this is enough to question. These are just some things to think about and try and answer

  61. on 15 Mar 2011 at 2:22 pmAlbert Ramos

    I am glad that we have someone like the Eqyptologist that authored this blog and posted it in this site. The large majority of scientists have turned their backs on UFOlogy, never mind the Eqyptologists. I authored “How Modern Society Invented UFOs.” I explore various themes and relate them to our present culture. With regards to the Ancient Astronaut Theory, proponents of such a theory are taking the idea of creationism and changing it where it were aliens who created humans and of course the pyramids. -cheers!

  62. on 24 Jul 2011 at 3:35 amJeeZ

    It may be possible that the 2.5 ton blocks could have been transported by boats and pulled or pushed along smooth roads or on rollers,but how did the egyptians get the blocks onto the boat and how did they transport the blocks to the topmost part of the pyramid?And what is the reason for the labyrinthine passages,mazes and crypts inside?I’m sure the ancient architects didn’t do that for kicks,so if the pyramids served as tombs,why go to so much trouble to build catacombs in which workers could get so easily lost or which cost so much extra work,planning and resources for just the sake of a magnificient tomb?

  63. on 24 Jul 2011 at 3:42 amJeeZ

    If wooden rollers were used to transport 2.5 on blocks over long distances,they might have worn out very easily,so on average,how many trees would have to be cut down to serve that purpose? (as far as i know,egypt being mostly in the desert grows a majority of only date palms,so where did the trees for the gigantic rollers come from?) And also how did the egyptians manage to get the 2.5 ton blocks onto the rollers?

  64. on 15 Sep 2011 at 3:49 amFelix Gregory

    I agree with the author Margaret Maitland and the rest that aliens did not build the pyramids. If they had the technology to travel the universe and land on earth, they would also have the technology to build other structures that would serve humans for more practical use. The friendly aliens would have definitely communicated with humans and adviced us on other matters in terms of science, medicine, tools and shared their advance way of life etc. Sadly, they have not… so my belief is that they had not visited us….yet
    My verdit: Credit to the ancient Egyptians for their achievement in building the pyramids all by themselves.

  65. on 24 Oct 2011 at 1:28 ammichael

    how could they make such precise cuts with exact measurements? u say that most ofnthe stones weigh 2 tons, what about the heavier ones? if they were smart enough to use wooden rollers why the hell were they still walking? you said they used cows to pull heavy stones but not a man? How did they get the stones onto the rollers? You question the holes in their evidence while leaving your own.

  66. on 12 Nov 2011 at 1:18 pmrpr

    What a research! but still I support the theory that aliens built the pyramids.Just think about the comment by “Jeez”.
    The fact that we humans are not ready to accept that something more intelligent is out there makes us more foolish.I mean we have to “think out of the box”. Tell me how many dimensions were there in the world? :Three. After Einstein? Four. Now somebody says Nine(9). What I wish to conclude is the Egyptian Kings may have tried to mimic the work involved in building Giza pyramid but they did not build it, no way,period.

  67. on 16 Nov 2011 at 8:09 pmGregg

    Why would a ‘far more developed civilization’ build or help build the pyramids from limestone. If aliens gave the Egyptians advance technology. Why give them knowledge of working with limestone. They could have given the Egyptians knowledge of cement to build them faster and easier. Or the aliens could have made them out of granite. If I was an alien and I was going to make a massive structure out of stone, granite would be my choice. It is a much more durable material. And when its polished looks great too.

    And if the aliens were passing out technology, plumbing or cement would have been nice. Instead of that electric “light bulb” some people believe they gave the Egyptians. Plumbing and cement are great simple technology with many benefits. Where as building with limestone and that electric “light bulb” are very complicated and impractical technologies.

  68. on 01 Dec 2011 at 6:02 pmmark

    there are many issues here that the author seems to have chosen to not address or fail to expain in detail:
    1) the emergence of pyramid style structures showing up simoultaneously all over the world at the same time
    2) the acceptance that at 340 stones installed per day the workforce would be installing a stone at nearly one every two minutes and 20 seconds on a 14 hour work day 365 days a year. These stones are similar in weight to a ford f150. Can you imagine trying to move and coordinate this type of feat(carving, mobilization and installation) on a daily tract for 23 years?
    3) the hardest known metal at the time was copper, what type of tool or method was used to quarry these stones?
    4) what type of infrastructure was incorporated to move the rocks up the pyramid and when the pyramids were completed, what happened to the infrastucture which would have been at least 1.5x the size of the pyramid?
    5) The pyramids are geographically located on the greates landmass laitutedly and longitudinally, how did they accomplish that?
    6) the ceilings in the kings chamber are finished at a smoothness that rivals what can be done today, and at truer angles that can be replicated today. How was this accomplished?

    call me a conspiracy theorist, a nutcase or what have you, but when you’re done, please explain these nagging questions so that i may join the ranks of the all knowing

  69. on 07 Dec 2011 at 5:19 pmTimT

    Thank you for this blog. As an undergrad student of Anthropology/Archaeology I am constantly battling people with theories such as the ones you stated. It is nice to have a professional who works in the field address this issue with actual facts in great detail. I used a lot of the information you gave in a blog of my own, don’t worry, I cited you. Thank you again.

  70. on 16 Jan 2012 at 8:42 pmEd

    First off, your statement, “Radiocarbon dating, which is unfortunately not always that accurate” is wrong. It is very accurate, if you believe in science.

    Second, I have never heard an of an alien theorists
    refer to ancient man as stupid and lazy!

    Alien theorists say the Egyptians had help. They too see the pictures of blocks being pulled by rope, on the walls. But some of the blocks found, weigh as much as 12,000 tons. There is nothing made today, that can move them… Was it because the earth was still flat? And things were easier to move?

    Then your crazy statement, “I don’t think anyone’s calling Galileo an alien.” I’m sorry, how does that play into your explanation of how 1600 years later, when he discovered that the earth went around the sun? No one is calling Egyptians aliens.

    And last, your statement, “Alien theorists often say that the pyramids couldn’t have been built by such ‘primitive’ ancient people.” is not true either. We say they did not possess the tools. They had copper and Gold, but some how cut 250 million blocks of pure granite… using no steel, no diamond tools, no pulleys… for just one Pyramid!!

    I think what the Egyptians did is magnificent, they certainly were not as you portray to others, how any theorist think of them. That being said, I will accept that the Egyptians built all of the magnificent structures, once you show me how it was done.

    It is obvious they had tools that no longer exist. What happened to them?

    And last, are you a Christian? Because that would be consistent with the carbon dating disbelief and any thought of another life form, especially one more advanced.

    Peace and Love
    able2think

  71. on 18 Jan 2012 at 5:11 pmEd

    Since you would not post my last comment, I shall try again…

    Just one Pyramid has over 250 million blocks of solid rock, that weigh 2 to 3 tons each. And they were carved by using what, gold and copper tools? At a time when they still thought the world was flat, the sun went around the earth and Pharos were gods, that lived forever.

    The fact is, with all of mans hydraulic powered tools, and mega trucks and huge cranes, man today, could not build a matching pyramid! Some of the stones found near the pyramids weigh 12,000 tons. It would take 22 of the worlds biggest heavy lift cranes, just to pick it up, let alone move it.

    But if you insist there was no alien influence, then it is obvious that the Egyptians were much smarter. Especially since they did not have the wheel yet, or pulleys.
    I guess they just picked those blocks up and put them in place, it’s easy. So easy in fact, no one has figured out how to do it.

    Oh and people who believe in alien influence, do not think ancient man was lazy… Where did you get that?

    Peace and Love

  72. on 20 Jan 2012 at 5:04 amShel

    What a fantastic website, so many possibilities on how these stone structures might have been built. Another posibility that hasn’t yet been mentioned is water. Yes just plain old simple water from the Nile.
    When the blocks of stone were brought close enough to the building site and off loaded from the barges, they were put in locks, (remember they had the same brains we have only not the tools) and floated up or down thru canals or trenchs or whatever it took to place them. Of course the pyramid was also flooded up to that level, drop the stone in place on it’s proper concourse and move on to the next stone. Internally the maizes, passageways, etc were used during building to drain and flood the site as needed for the placement. Many of the passageways were then sealed up upon completion of the pyramid. Pretty simple, huh?

  73. on 12 Feb 2012 at 3:40 amBJG

    For the Egyptians side. Let us clarify this for any future posters. The stones were approx. 2.5 tons. Theres been many arguments that you couldn’t get enough people around it to move a stone that size. I have no basis in physics, or any science for that matter, but even i’m aware there’s simple ways around that. 40 people couldn’t fit around that stone, no. However forty people could tie ropes and drag it. Secondly, theres so many arguments about “Why would the egyptians build pyramids?” Turn it around. Why would aliens build pyramids, leave no mark to show for it, then never return? It’s also been said they were beacons. For what? It’s not like it’s a lighthouse, theres no method to make it a beacon to begin with. Thirdly they have all this amazing technology to come down here, yet they need a beacon to show them where it’s at? NASA has the technology to find the exact place it landed 40 some years ago on the moon, but they need a beacon to find their way back?
    How did they gt the stones on to the rollars? For the love of whatever diety! The rollars weren’t THAT big. Did you ever stop and think how would i do that? A small ramp with a drop at the end. Line the first rollar up under the drop, and drag it on. I’m not saying thats how they did it, but thats not a difficult problem, even for these “barbarians” as they’re called.
    Most of these questions can be answered if you just think about it. Stop jumping to irrational theories, and THINK. For whatever dieties sake, the people argueing that it wasn’t possible because they weren’t intelligent enough seem to be the people who aren’t thinking at all!
    As we say in the Navy “don’t nuke it” as in don’t overthink something to the point that you discredit it’s validity.

  74. on 12 Feb 2012 at 6:48 pmjosh

    Orion’s belt a coincidence? The perfect symmetry, constant usage of pii and the golden number, an obtainable exact numerical value of the speed of light, aligment with not just other pyramids but sites across the world from easter island to angkor wat. your argument is pathetic.

  75. on 15 Feb 2012 at 7:39 pmEd

    Whoa… You did post my comment… Thank you. But no comment huh? I guess it is hard to argue with scientific fact, over myth and ancient religious text. After all the first chapter in the bible says the earth was created first, then the sun??? When it has been proven that a star forms first, then come the planets. But what do you expect from a bunch of people who thought the world was flat, and that some guy was able to build a boat, big enough to hold a pair of each animal, mammal and insect, plus food for all of them. According to my calculations, this ark would have had to be 2 miles long, and 1/2 a mile wide. It would have taken over a ton of food a day to feed all the animals, which meant he had to have a minim of 40 tons of food. And then add all of the animals, which would have weighed about 200 tons. So the boat had to weigh at least 450 tons empty. For a grand total of over 700 Tons! No ship could possibly weigh that much.
    When the Aliens return on Dec 21st this year, I am going to tell them where you live!!!

  76. on 17 Feb 2012 at 5:15 amAbhishek

    This whole article is really awesome.
    all misconceptions are clear.
    A round of applause to the writer. really a gr8 work
    u r doing a gr8 work by sharing this kind of info with all of us .
    god bless u.

  77. on 22 Feb 2012 at 2:52 amjason

    you did not really prove anything except state that there were other ways they could have built them. it is not that we could not do it or i am arrogant for thinking that. the aliens built the sphinx with a lion head (which was replaced by the pharaoh kafre’s head) and the pryamid of giza. the rest are copies. giza is an ancient energy plant. there are machine marks. let me repeat that, THERE ARE MACHINE MARKS on the stones of giza. i will give you maybe 1 or 2 items that they could have known. but to be built on 31 degrees latitude and 31 degrees longitude, facing due north, the diameter is exactly PIE when divided by two times the height, stone blocks are so close to perfect light cant pass through, the sun traces around the head of the sphinx on winter solstice, each side is within 2 centimeters, and i could go on… but there 100 billion stars like our sun in the galaxy and there are 100 billion galaxies. our 1 galaxy is 4.6 billion years and is one of the youngest in the universe. human remains of unreal technology do not support your theory. if we had the education and building techniques as you say with no help in those days then why medicines and extended life spans. because we can now figure out how people died from the grave and it simply does not support a theory of high eduction.

  78. on 14 Mar 2012 at 10:31 pmLaszlo

    Thank you very much for a very clear and appropriately ‘Eloquent’ article. As a student of History and Archaeology, I feel this sort of topic deserves more thoughtful and organised explanation such as this (and a lot less of the opposite).

  79. on 21 Mar 2012 at 11:20 pmStan

    Nice post, but I still don’t see how they made it, there’s no proof of Aliens, but no proof the humans made them either.

  80. on 22 Mar 2012 at 3:06 pmmaksim

    Margaret, why would… “practical” people (as you’ve mentioned) and I will also add that they are brilliant people, build a mega-structure of mad precision and complexity, just to bury one man’s ego… Mind that none was found inside any of them “crypts”.

    The Ancient Aliens series were mostly laughable. Don’t even mention them.

    I think you are just trying to position yourself in this conundrum as the one who has all the knowledge. Well you won’t find it on… “websites”.

    Might I recommend reading Christopher Dunn?

  81. on 26 Mar 2012 at 4:39 amBrodie Smith

    Brodie Smith has a theory that the egyptian pyramids were actually giant mass relays that the egyptians built for the reaper invasion. Translations for words:
    Khofu – Sovereign
    Djoser – Harbinger.

  82. on 28 Mar 2012 at 3:43 pmaRTy Shinn

    I dont think aliens built the pyramids, but i do believe in they are out there.

  83. on 28 Mar 2012 at 3:45 pmaRTy Shinn

    I dont think aliens built the pyramids, but i do believe in the idea that they are out there.

  84. on 01 Apr 2012 at 1:43 amEric

    Sorry but I believe the Great Pyramid of Giza was not a tomb. It had a purpose.

    Just because it is a pyramid shape doesn’t mean it must be a tomb! Look at our buildings today… Schools, libraries, hospitals, factories… All have the same shape on the outside but how it looks doesn’t matter! It’s what’s inside, it’s functionality that matters.

    First red flag is they never have found a body in the pyramids of Giza. But maybe someone removed it right? That weathered sarcophagus in the Kings Chamber did not hold a mummified body… Come on!

    Second: there are absolutely no inscriptions of any kind anywhere. To me, this seals the deal it was not a tomb. For a culture obsessed with the afterlife and moving on, they would include something in a supposed chamber. There would have been 5 pointed stars at the minimum.

    Third: The pyramid itself is drowning in advanced mathematical and astronomical symbolism from top to bottom.

    Another very interesting point is the rain weathering on the carved area around the sphinx, discovered by John Anthony West. You simply can’t explain how this happened unless it was built pre ice age when rain was falling in Giza.

    I think it’s important to consider a new timeline of humanity that could help explain the mysteries of our past. Why is it so crazy to think there were advanced civilizations long before the Egyptains as we know them.

  85. on 13 Apr 2012 at 12:27 amChloe

    Its about time someone told the truth on this matter!

  86. on 13 Apr 2012 at 12:29 amChloe

    Eric there are multiple types of ersion, not just rain

  87. on 14 Apr 2012 at 8:11 pmcudz

    i have so much research that would crush this theory. Aliens built them and i can give several reasons and facts why humans couldnt have built them

  88. on 17 Apr 2012 at 11:53 pmMiguel

    I understand your pain. I am from Mexico, and I have been raised around the notion that my ancestors the Aztecs and Teotihuacanos built the pyramids in Mexico. And then there are people discussing the idea that aliens built it.
    It’s really insulting to heritage and culture.
    They should understand that there was intelligence everywhere, including everywhere outside of Rome and Greece.
    The Giza pyramids were built by determined architects and incredible stone masons. Same goes with Aztecs, Mayans, etc…
    AND, on a side note, people always say that the Mesoamericans worshiped aliens because their deities looked humanoid and came from the sky; this has been proven false, and well known in ACTUAL scientific circles that the gods were discovered well after the ancients saw animals under the influence of pulque, salvia, peyote and other psychoactive substances. Perhaps this is the same result with the ancient Egyptians.
    Perhaps conspiracy theorists need to look at the bigger picture, and actually accept trained scholars instead of wading in their own stupidity.

  89. on 25 Apr 2012 at 3:07 amRay

    Well I have just spent the last 4 hours reading every single post and I love this topic.

    I am more on the side of alien intervention than to believe humans of this age could have achieved this.

    People question why would aliens want to do this and then fly back to their home planet and never return. Who is to say they didnt stay and are still among us? I think this forum is great because in life we are fed what we want to hear. I particually like one of the posts referring to Noah’s Ark. I was watching the cartoon film with my 3 yr old son recently and I thought “how far fetched is this? Hold on this is what we are told to be true” I wouldnt fancy being the animal sat next to the lion or the snakes for that matter. Strange how they must have all just got along with eachother on that boat dont you think?

    I think so much of what we are told is either inaccurate or just plain wrong that it makes you wonder what is the truth?

  90. on 25 Apr 2012 at 3:41 amRay

    I would also like to post this for people to have a look at.

    http://mars-earth.com/cydonia_eygpt/

    The mind boggles!!!

  91. on 03 May 2012 at 6:12 pmKirk

    Great read. Really well done. I am left however unsatisfied. I’d like to at least hear these “numerous” theories on how the higher stones came to be. Can you refer me to a colleague perhaps who has more information on this?

  92. on 14 May 2012 at 2:24 amMark S

    You have to really tie in mathematics and other aspects to paint a clearer picture. A quick answer of “Aliens” is absurd, but puts ones head outside the box.

    These are facts that can be checked.

    1) The Great Pyramid is almost spot-on North to South, a feat we’ve only recently acquired with architecture.

    2) The number Pi can be found time and time again within the dimensions of the Great Pyramid.

    3) 2.3 Million Blocks at 2.5-15 tons.

    4) The Golden Number as well as the Speed of Light can be found in the dimensions of the Great Pyramid.

    5) No evidence that the Great Pyramid was ever a tomb has been found that has been conclusive enough.

    6) The Giza site, as well as the Peru sites of Machu Picchu and the Nazca Lines, are on a straight line that goes around the Earth, and includes Easter Island as well. This line is at an angle of 30 degrees.

    These factors alone leave us begging for answers.

    The answer: Slaves did it, is absurd at best.

  93. on 16 May 2012 at 3:15 amnefertiti atunson

    Our acceptance to their existence is the first step of communication.

    The pyramids were never intended as tombs.
    The pyramids are some type of sonic machines.
    The pyramids were in existence long before the time of the Pharaohs.
    Dynastic Egyptians merely lived in the presence of the pyramids just as we do today.

    read this link

    http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/piramides/esp_piramide_11a.htm

  94. on 19 May 2012 at 8:43 amMr Normal

    Middle man trying to make sense of all this.

    An interesting blog that has given me some clarity,
    which is nice to know facts from people who study the subject.

    The reason im here is because of that tv show “Ancient Aliens” it too is interesting but i take it all with a pinch of salt, and as all who watch it will probably cringe at its lack of explanitory evidence and never expanding on a controversial statement, and its annoying repetition. Yet interesting questions and some interesting evidence.

    Now i can see there is a lot of evidence that clearly states each civilization built their own great pyramids.

    What i want answered like many beforehand is:

    what was the technique in which the top stones were placed in the or infact any large pyramid?

    It stands to reason if there were plans to building egypts pyramids they should state the technique used.

    so another question: Have any plans found stated the correct technique used?

    If the answer is no then they maybe lost
    Therefore it is perfectly reasonable that without the hard evidence you can speculate all theories you like.

    So I ask if someone could please help me understand great pyramid building in that specific area, maybe the author of this post or anyone who has some facts to clear this issue.

    On another note as a middle person its great to hear some of the good arguments from both sides,
    the non intervention believers and the intervention believers.

    But i will argue for both cases on points thta seem vital:

    Non Interventionists

    There is crucial evidence states the civilization involved in the creation of all great megalithic structures of the world and cultures related to them and even the evolution of the pyramid that makes them a man made structure.

    The Interventionists

    Many of these structures are great monuments to history of man kind but some question arise in the topping of the great pyramid, and many other eyebrow raisers from the tv show “Ancient Aliens”.
    The idea of aliens coming to earth and presenting themselves to ancient cultures can be easily seen as gods visiting mankind.
    If They were involved with some structures and not leave behind thier tools who would blame them, if it were us would we leave great technology behind in an era where it does not belong?
    And the evidence therefore is not in the tools but the structures theselves and in the timespan it was achieved in that would be the eveidence for future generations.

    Now we shouldnt pin the aliens every time but it can be reasonably argued by the mysteries of our world lightly revealed in the tv show the “Ancient Aliens” and if anyone would like to answer some of those questions please let me know,
    i urge both critic and devoted alien lovers ot question everything but at least keep an open mind and maybe both watch the show with a pinch of salt.

  95. on 24 May 2012 at 2:30 amScott

    The writer is the usual teacher that teaches what they are told. Blah, Blah, clovis man is oldest site, Man walked from Siberia, Egyptians built pyramids and we cant prove it. Anyone who says another version is a alien crackpot. What about magnets or something MAN did? Do I have proof? Nope, but neithier do the books we read on the subject also. How was coral castle built? Sure author has a lame answer for it also. My favorite is how did the get the inner casing which was massive in Giza lifted over 50 feet in the air when the people were supposed to be pulling things around with ropes. Where is evidence of all the trees used to barge stones in? None. The had records of everything from what they ate everyday to who ruled but they omit the building of it. Ha
    Giza is perfect, could be man made, but not with current technology. And Scientists have zero evidence to support this weak argument that is spoon fed in the classroom.

  96. on 27 May 2012 at 12:07 amJames

    I find it much easier to believe in the alien theory, u cleary dont have any facts to back your arguement up just a whole lot of useless rambiling

  97. on 27 May 2012 at 12:28 amJames

    Btw i think margrets dead..she hasnt replyed in a while or maybe was abducted by aliens haha thtdl teach her

  98. on 03 Jun 2012 at 8:55 pmGoncho666

    A classic example of a little knowledge is dangerous!

    I am guessing that you are one of those people – having never been physically close enough to the pyramids to even realise that we are dealing with a miracle in engineering and not just some supposed pharoahs death wish.

    I spent a year studying this edifice back in 1991 and have still to find the unquestionable evidence of who truly built the pyramids.

    The truth is fantastic and since we are never told that the pyramids were built between the stone and the bronze age and the level of planning and engineering needed could not have been a random plan. All the resources that we know of on earth back then were not enough to have produced this miraculous edifice.

    If, as the author wants to claim that it was possible- Ask yourselves this- Who? and why? did they undertake a massive clearing up job of all the evidence to prove that the egyptians undertook this feat.

    The level of technical knowledge across the entire globe at this epoch fly in the face of all of the evidence that is available for us to study

    I would suugest that even the egyptians themselves never claimed ownership or that they built the great pyramid as there is not one text or scrap of evidence to back up the claims. The same can be said for Khufu/Cheops.

    Who would take the risk that a project would never be finished in his lifeime????

    If people truly dig for the truth, as I have been doing since 91 you begin to fully realise that the egyptians as presented to us by the hard evidence available, did not build the pyramids. Ignoring aliens and outlandish claims we still have no unquestionable evidence to making a definite statement, and if we look to the claims made by the indiginous people of the area at that remote time. We could well believe that it was a race of giants and not mere men who undertook this miracle in stone.

    I say, let those closer to the event have the last say -even if we find it difficult to comprehend.

  99. on 09 Jun 2012 at 1:28 pmann

    pyramids are not only found in egypt but it is found in many other places ….. The interesting thing similar in size and height is the mayan temple …. So who do you thing build those massive structures …

  100. on 18 Jun 2012 at 8:50 pmEnzo

    1. Given 2,3000,000 blocks and 23 years that means that 100,000 blocks a year. So, 273 blocks were quarried & precisely cut, moved and put in place every single day for 23 years. With copper & stone tools? Right. In your dreams. So with today’s technology advancements, we should be able to do the same thing with 5,000 people in 10 years. Let’s get started. I want to see this hilariousness unfold. After 10 years we haven’t even rebuilt ground zero.

    2. There are no hieroglyphs inside the pyramid. Why not?

    3. How did they create the angular passage ways throughout the pyramid? This is insanely difficult.

    4. The astronomical alignments are way too advanced to have been created by the Egyptians.

    There’s no way in hell it was built according to the current nonsensical theories.

  101. on 24 Jun 2012 at 3:05 pmJames Donald Durkee

    Dear Sir or Madam,

    Have you considered the possibility of time travel?

    Best regards,

    JDD

  102. on 24 Jun 2012 at 6:35 pmMark

    Why would you assume that when the Egyptians build the pyramids that they found it necessary to leave behind some sort of instructions on how they built them that would last 5000 years!! Do we have instructions on how the empire state building was constructed carved into a rock slab? Think of what would happen if the USA falls in to an economic crises and the country as we know it falls apart. The great marvels of construction are left to ruin and 5000 years later some civilization wants to know how we were able to construct such wonders. Are they going to jump to the conclusion that aliens must have built them because they couldn’t find an instructions pamphlet?

  103. on 07 Jul 2012 at 11:32 pmpaul taulbee

    Seems like the aliens would have built with some material other than local limestone, and left some of their superior technology.

  104. on 16 Jul 2012 at 12:00 amMHD

    The pyramids and ancient egypt generally were built by the giant humans, NO truth except that.

    The early ancient egyptians were giant humans, the portraits prove that hidden truth, addition to the construction records, it tells us that workers of ancient egypt were giants.

    The construction of pyramids is recorded, stones were lifted on shoulders.

    The construction of obelisks is recorded too and giants were working on it.

    The unfinished obelisk is total proof on the truth of giants either, Its funny that archaeologists show the small diorite hammer stones to people and hide the huge large diorite ones, Cheaters no more, If u look at the unfinished obelisk in Aswan, U would notice Two giant human footprint on them, the archaeologists rushed to remove this sign by hitting around the remains, if u deeply concentrate at the signs of hitting diorite stones under the unfinished obelisk, you would notice big curved pace, not small….which means A Large diorite hammer was used to cut the stone.

  105. on 16 Jul 2012 at 12:07 amMHD

    NO aliens Nor people in our size built ancient egypt.

    Ancient egypt in brief:

    It was built by the early giants then the pharaohs ( who were people in our size) followed the giants era by thousands of years and lived in those dwellings of giants, they added their own civilization.

    Archaeologists deliberately limited the age of ancient egypt and made everything ancient belong to pharaoh, in order to serve the Jewish Agenda, The jewish agenda claims that ancient israelites shared the pharaohs in building ancient egypt, Thats all lies and hypocrisy.

    The ancient israelites and pharaohs didnt build miracles, It was the early giants.

  106. on 23 Jul 2012 at 1:53 pmWilliam Brainard

    Q. Why is there no inscription on the Great Pyramid of the pharaoh who built it?

    A. Because the pharaoh who built it knew he could never be forgotten.

    Aliens my ass! First prove to me aliens have ever visited Earth anywhere before.

    Then explain to me how they got here.

    There’s never been aliens on Earth.

    Next thing some of you whacko’s will believe is; the existence of a God like Christ being. Some people will believe anything. No wonder we are in such a mess.

  107. on 27 Jul 2012 at 3:12 amRossMelb

    Hi, there’s a very interesting new contribution to this debate in …BEFORE THE DELUSION by Wm Gleeson, recently published in UK. It’s not so much about who built the pyrs but why – what were they for [they were definitely not tombs]
    Check it out – worth a look for a radical new theory well supported with references.
    ross

  108. on 30 Jul 2012 at 2:35 pmRutul

    Don’t become a sadist, understand the actual meaning of the post. I believe that Egyptians built pyramids, some techniques are still in use in today’s world. Some ‘stone moving techniques’ are so easy to fit in mind but those hoping that ‘aliens will arrive’ are fools. I mean if aliens arrived/will arrive, then they’d have/will certainly ‘delete’ the men kind. We are also going to do so when we leave the earth and ‘find’ another ‘alien kind’. Think about it.

  109. on 07 Aug 2012 at 5:46 pmDon Benson

    EVERY i repeat “every” “tomb” discovered in Egypt is adorned with pictures, names, wall carvings etc.etc.etc…but the tomb of the greatest leader known to Egypt is as plain as plastic bread box…with no recognition of the person within..does not compute my friend.

    Not saying aliens built them, but they are not tombs…they are not structures to glorify and preserve a great leader. It has already been proved that some of the stones show machining marks of a precision we would have difficulty duplicating today without using water lazers.

    The people of the time may have done the work but there are certain things that just don’t follow you’er theory and have not been explained.

    Thanks

  110. on 09 Aug 2012 at 5:17 pmOnepost

    I don’t think anyone would suggest that aliens built one of the more crude pyrimads, like the Bent Pyrimad that the author mentioned. I don’t know how close in size the Bent Pyrimad is to Giza, but if they are similar in size than that would at least suggest that the Egyptians had a decently effective method to place the upper stones, whether it be by ramp or whatever other method.

  111. on 12 Aug 2012 at 12:02 amDaniel

    And now explain the bosnian pyramids…

  112. on 21 Aug 2012 at 2:02 pmsticksix

    at approx 2.5 million blocks in the great pyramid and an estimated construction time of 25 years, means if you worked 24/7 you would need to quarry, cut, and set a block into place about every 3 minutes…not possible.

  113. on 24 Aug 2012 at 1:25 amJess89

    A typical school book view. Unfortunately, while you try to back up a lot of your theories you miss a lot of the main points. Where did they get these “logs” to drag the 2.5 tonne blocks? They wouldn’t have cut down the trees as it was a main food source… You say 2000 men built the pyramids? Really? Where did you read that? It seems you have typed out everything you have read and heard about the construction of the pyramids without arguing any of the points, very one minded. While your argument and theories seem practical they are very weak and I think you need to do more research and question “how” and “why” before writing a basic blog.

  114. on 28 Aug 2012 at 3:31 pmGothaven

    From what i see, all who support the Alien theory are Either liers or uninformed conspiracists who forgot to take medication!

    The Article explains more than enough, of who , why and how the Pyramids where built as an African Archeologist who has put decades of research and evidence to test, i cant believe how Hollywood has effectively crippled scepticis and scientific thought.

    I mean realy, has any of you people gone to Egypt and tested your ideas, have u even read research with proper citations. This is spitting in the fabe of Heritage, I guess Einstein and Edison were helpd by Aliens and Washington slew Vampires.

  115. on 18 Sep 2012 at 7:22 pmron

    If you wanted men that were fit,worked in groups,etc…
    that were ready for war but had none to fight.
    What better way then to build a monolithic religious
    structure?
    The silt from the nile was rich to grow food.
    It gave them drinking water.
    The sea gave them food and supplies that were from other places.
    If everyone took a poop twice a day. That’s 60,000
    piles a day just for the workers. Plus you could not have everyone just peeing anywhere they wanted. You cant work 14 hour day’s without food and you could not come down every time to eat. Each worker must have had to pack food,water,and a bucket everyday.
    So in my opinion they were built to improve know how.
    Keep fit. Mix people from different part’s of the country.
    Show power. Keep everyone to one religion.
    To show that by working together that their is no reason to kill each other and any intruder would see the power of the people and not even try to start a war.
    What would you be willing to build to honor the person that brings world peace?

  116. on 19 Sep 2012 at 3:30 pmAung Sett K Min

    None of the supporters of “Egyptians built the pyramids” really answered the nagging questions asked by some of the conspiracy theorists(or should i say, “humans who think out of the box”).
    If you collect all the known facts about the pyramid of Giza and present them to a totally neutral bystander, he will, without a doubt, say that humans alone could not have accomplished this great feat.
    how can you explain about the extreme precision involved in building the pyramids, using just primitive tools? something like that could only have done by some assistance from state-of-the-art machinery or external intervention, perhaps?
    i don’t know what you think about this, but for me, i certainly believe that Egyptians alone couldn’t have built this magnificent piece of architecture.
    thank you.
    PS>>I believe in God.

  117. on 20 Sep 2012 at 10:40 pmRobert

    Try looking on youtube for the following

    YTgxGJfXRQ0

    Seriously, why people want it to be aliens is beyond me
    Also
    People who focus on the alien angel tend to not have religious faith, but follow the alien angel with as much fervor as a religious man touts the bible as proof…….

    Anyway, this man’s theories carry as much or more weight and actual explain how Man did it and how it was done in 20 years…without ET helping :)

  118. on 20 Sep 2012 at 11:53 pmJohnooooboo

    Aliens recorded everything what happened such as wars & leaders. They didn’t have anything drawn or written about them building pyramids. Even their leaders were described as aliens! Google osiris..

  119. on 23 Sep 2012 at 11:02 pmAndrew UK

    I know your teacher at school taught you that the egyptians built the pyramids. Unfortunately that teacher was taught by another teacher and so on….just like when it was thought the world was flat. However the truth exists and eventually bright sparks find the facts….The fact is the pyramids were built circa 10500bc due to carbon dating (humans cannot have done it and I know how frustrating it will be to read this as you wasted your time in that history class). Its better for humans to think they are clever (I know I can play chess too)

    Having said that, its probably better that our teachers continue teaching us about the Egyptians abilities because otherwise Egypt wont get any tourism and it’ll be right embarrassing for them.

    Presented with the real facts in court, 12 jurors would come to the same conclusions….sod upsetting the tourism in Egypt, the aliens built em.

  120. on 09 Oct 2012 at 1:48 amjobs in brighton mi

    This is an awesome discussion! I saw something about this on ancient aliens and thought it was a bit off!

  121. on 09 Oct 2012 at 4:26 amCharmingny

    Alessio Offreda wrote

    “The great pyramid was built in 22 years.. correct? That means each block weighing tons had to be cut, transported, and placed every 9 seconds.. 9 Seconds.”

    you are forgetting that talks could be done simultaneously. you are calculating one person’s 22 years into seconds and divided by amount of stones. You are forgetting there are hindered of thousands of people’s 22 years. You have to multiply 24 years * numbers of people involved and then divided by numbers of stones

  122. on 11 Oct 2012 at 7:23 ammitch can

    Is it so “stupid”, as you put it, for people to say that the pyramids were built by aliens? Not saying that we couldn’t build them, or that we could for that matter. (Miniature pyramids with the same size and weight of blocks have been attempted multiple times with a fraction of accuracy and not nearly as hasty) But to discredit the entire possibility that aliens COULD have built this would be to say that they don’t exist at all.
    Judging by the size of the universe and the “randomness” of human existence, it would be “stupid”, as you put it, to say that we are the only civilization ever out there and the only sophisticated species to ever touch this planet.
    Simply, there is much more to even human history that we still don’t understand. Perhaps humans were just as intelligent then as we are now, and we have been around for a long time, (simple historic art pieces date back further than even 30,000 bce) but it did take us until the 1700′s (ce that is) to come up with a single-cell, charged object ie. the battery.

  123. on 19 Oct 2012 at 10:51 amThe truth

    Haha ok then… 1. i will give you a clue the egyptians DID NOT build the pyramids but something way way before them i know this because i was visited by them not so long ago.
    They explained to me that some of the people in power todat do not tell us what was really found apparemtly there was a message left to us that we dont know about and it explains everything.
    They told me that a clue is in 4 dots? i didnt understand this but thay also said that something will return soon and some people will not like it as they will find it hard to believe and it will go against all religions ect.

    Another thing they mentioned was that the way things were built are ignored today because the people investigating today are angry that they cannot find out how it was done

    I do know that some methods of building was by using heat to mould and stick blocks in different parts of the world

    so much was explained to me .. one last thing i will say is that they made some kind of line around the earth that will tell us wat is happening….i didnt understand this either!

    Good luck with your discoveries!

  124. on 21 Oct 2012 at 11:47 pmCarmon

    there is proof in the ancient sumarian scriptures that we were visited by people with the technology to fly 450,000 years ago. in fact in the ancient scriptures that the biblical “Moses” wrote he describes being taken up to the gods and wrote a whole description of heaven which matches a description of a space view of are planet and describes are world as being round which we are self’s didn’t discover until after Columbus sailed the earth… and I was just reading an article that proves that drills were used in some of the inner construction and there is marking that indicate that they would of needed a diamond drill and be using 2,000 pounds of pressure and it apparently was moving .100 RPM’s the 80′s diamond drill only went at .00002 RPM’s. you may believe what you want but there is to much facts and proof to be found for me to believe that modern day humans were able to build the pyramids with out help and they have found 35 ft tall skeletons which have been called the Anunnaki. thank you for reading

  125. on 26 Oct 2012 at 2:49 amyu

    absolute rubbish!!! I do not believe a word in this article! Aliens built pyramids and sphinxes not anyone else and there is no need to spread BS trying to convince people otherwise. There were not a single mummy ever found in pyramids, ever. Pyramids are not for the mummified kings and queens. Pyramids were not built for people either.

  126. on 26 Oct 2012 at 1:49 pmJosh

    I am fasinated by the prymids and egyption life, i have been to see them a number of times and think they are just mind blowing, to think that Humans could actually achive something on the size as the great pryimids, but there is a big question in to how they were built,

    think about it, if your standing next to the Great Pryamid , one block is HUGE, how could they possibly build it to such size and accuacy,

    lets put it this way who ever built them had power over any other human, maybe a King, God, or Alien life

  127. on 01 Nov 2012 at 12:09 pmLee

    I am just about to start reading this and got as far as “Egyptologists are often so frustrated by this that they want nothing to do with the situation”. I must say that having just come back from a lengthy tour of Egypt after being fascinated by its ancient history since childhood, I left massively disappointed.
    I think Egyptologists are very confused people about their history, and they probably should be too. I was forever hearing contradictions being fed to us as the trip went on and we visited more and more places. If some people think that believing aliens or ‘gods of the sky’ helped build not only the pyramids but many other ancient historic sights around the world which appear to be hard to explain, then I was just as alarmed by some of the things coming out of the Egyptologists mouth. It was often a case of them having no clue what so ever about what happened and so an unrealistic and unbelievable story would be told. I found it quite funny that when I asked them tricky questions their understanding of the English language would almost disappear! We had 4 different tour guides throughout the trip, all Egyptologists, and this was the case for all of them.

    I will read on with this anyway.

  128. on 01 Nov 2012 at 12:17 pmLee

    Sorry, another thing I will say is that I think the ancient Egyptians would be disgusted if they could see Egypt now. I couldn’t believe nor understand how filthy dirty it is and how there’s no law on the road or probably any laws in general.

    What’s the point in having a government if they’re not even going to clean up the streets or all of the rubbish which is being dumped in the canals. The people should know better as well and are just as much to blame for ruining their country and see the downfall of tourism.

    All these people I see just sitting on the street, whether they’re homeless or not, do something useful. Clean up your city, do anything to make it a better place instead of just being lazy and sitting there or making a donkey almost about to die be your slave because you’re too lazy to walk.

  129. on 16 Nov 2012 at 4:21 pmJai

    Although I’m quite certain that the egyptions built the pyramids, I am also quite certain that this monument could not have been built in around 20 years, nor could it have been built by such primitive tools such as a bronze chisel and stones. To reach accuracies of 1/50th an inch and make the pyramids earthquake proof (by using different blocks so no fault lines can occur) is outstanding. There is so little we know about ancient egypt that no one really knows how they were built. And when no body knows how something was built, people like to believe in things that are bigger then them as you said.

    Well written, though

  130. on 20 Nov 2012 at 1:30 amk

    well this could be true but how i see it aliens are acually other humans on other plkanets who might be smarter than us

  131. on 25 Nov 2012 at 5:12 pmEd

    All I can do is hope…
    If they were built by aliens, that they come back in my lifetime.
    To see the end of myth and religion would make me so happy. Hell, I’d even let them eat me.

    Peace and Love

  132. on 26 Nov 2012 at 12:46 pmJoy

    The comments here are hilarious
    the repeating ad nauseam of the same ill informed “arguments”
    the accusation to a professional Egyptologist of never have visited Egypt
    the claim of being “open minded” yet disregarding every single piece of evidence real science has to offer

    even one comment of someone claiming that he was visited by aliens

    this conspiracy nutters are incredibly unintentionally funny

  133. on 29 Nov 2012 at 5:14 pmJoe

    This is a great essay. The only thing I have to say is that I believe that they were built in correlation to the orion CONSTELLATION. Not just the belt. As were many other structures on the planet. I don’t remember what show I saw this on, but many many things that have been build over the millenia, including the Giza pyramids, seem to match Orion’s belt. Also, if you match up the full Orion constellation with the pyramids and the many other things that match the belt, there is a fourth extremely important place to those that built it that matches on the overlay picture another star in the constellation. I can’t seem to find anything about it on the internet right now, because I cant find the right way to word it, but that is what makes me think that they were in fact built in resemblance to Orion.

  134. on 04 Dec 2012 at 3:58 amAhmed

    Well.. Interesting stuff, however, did you know that an alien mummy was discovered last month near one of the pyramids in Egypt, and that it is currently stored in the Egyptian museum. news, and some photos have leaked from inside the museum.

  135. on 07 Dec 2012 at 2:22 pmpavel zieger

    If the aliens did build the great pyramid, why the heck did they build something so absurdly simple? They had interstellar transport for crying out loud! If they came all saddled up with advanced construction technology in their spaceships, they could have as easily built something a little more complex, couldn’t they?

  136. on 14 Dec 2012 at 1:29 pmJosh

    This is a very well written project Margaret. I appreciate your work and what you have done to try and encourage the same people who want to think with such an “open mind,” to actually have an open mind into ideas that they do not understand.

    I think people are fascinating and what they are willing to believe and even defend with tooth and nail is even more curious.

    In my opinion people who are insecure in their own beliefs try to force their beliefs on others. Examples: a good majority of the comments regarding aliens for this document and some for Egyptians alike, religion, politics, just to name a few.

    If you are truly at peace with what you believe, have the mental discipline to stick by it and not feel the need to defend it to anyone and everyone that challenges your beliefs. I can assure you there will always be this type of insecurity in the world.

    Everyone do themselves a favor and step back and decide what you really believe. Ask yourself, Does it really matter what someone else believes? Does this fundamentally change your belief in anyway? I can say from this document alone this is not the case as people are standing firm in what they believe on one side or the other.

    The human mind is incredible, when we abuse its power to try and force an opinion or belief on one another we shame ourselves and the greatness we are capable of as human beings.

    Why not work with one another for understanding? Rather than battle to determine who is right. This simple idea can be applied to a lot more areas of life than this one debate.

    Peace

  137. on 21 Dec 2012 at 10:20 pmMike

    I’m sorry but your oversized OPINION is highly misleading, please, explain how the Flower Of Life pattern is laser burned into the Osirian temple, you can chip away at this pattern and no matter how much you chip away the pattern is still there burned all the way through the rock, how could they have done this?

  138. on 03 Jan 2013 at 1:15 pmgio

    i was told that no mummy has ever been found in a pyramid any where on earth no that no writings have been found of such constructions and the theory behind mummies not being found was due to grave robbers but the archeologists that entered the great pyramid of giza had to dynamite they way in so can the grave robber theory be true and why wouldnt they build it and not write something like hey i built this as my tomb it took this long n this many ppl and the time taken is ridiculous some archeologists say they were built by farmers during the flooding of the nile so it took 20yrs to build which is a block every 3min but coz it was only done during the nile floods that changes it to every 3sec not to mention the precise measurements please enlighten me i hope iv been misled coz that would clear up so much blanks in our main stream history

  139. on 08 Jan 2013 at 11:44 pmoscar

    This is such a horrible article! first, how could you be so sure that we did built the pyramids?

    To me this article is not about how the pyramids were built, but just trying to say that you know for sure that aliens dont exist when you and me dont know absolutely anything of why we are here.

    So dont come up with conclusions that you think are a fact.

  140. on 12 Jan 2013 at 2:11 amcal

    why can we not replicate it today ?

  141. on 12 Jan 2013 at 2:16 amcal

    we have tried and failed.
    but of course they were far more advanced and skilled than we are today…

  142. on 17 Jan 2013 at 11:47 pmBridanya

    Very informative and helpful! Agreed very much when you said it’s more exciting to regard this as a human achievement. Also, being possibly part Jewish myself, I was considerably relieved to hear Jewish slaves weren’t involved in these constructions at least.

  143. on 20 Jan 2013 at 2:52 pmKellie

    Most talk is about the build of the Great Pyramid and who did it.

    How about the design?

    Please go to http://www.gizapyramid.info

    The references there are the Entrance height, The Queen’s Chamber floor level and the King’s Chamber floor level (the top of the Great Step). Other dimensions including the bottom of the Great Step will be added later.

    All dimensions use simple ratios. No Pi, no Phi. Nothing has been put in to ‘make things work’.

    Who designed it? The ancient Egyptians did.

    ……….Kellie

  144. on 29 Jan 2013 at 6:00 amTherion

    Ancient aliens, along with other History channel shows are mainly just for ratings, and don’t mean anything. I mean once December 21st came and went the non stop apocalypse shows just vanished (I am sure the guy who posted the aliens were coming that day is upset). Anyway, I just found it ironic most of the posts with horrible spelling are pro alien, and also accusing others of a lack of intelligence. That one guy spelled Pi like he was sitting down to eat some. And I am not religious nor do I pull for either side here, but I would be extremely shocked to find out aliens that were capable of space travel would have made those pyramids considering they would be beyond intelligent, and I would’ve hoped they would have done something more than built a few structures. Even if they were nicely built, and large in scale.

  145. on 31 Jan 2013 at 11:12 amledgend

    This is rubbish and you are ignorant to not even accept the possibillity of aliens building the pyramids in order to make the pyramids you would have needed 100.000 + people, then you need to accomodate them, feed them etc and it would have taken thousands of years. some of the stones weighed 50 tons and where cut perfectly, so close together you couldnt fit paper through the cracks, also why would they randomly draw aliens U.F.Os and giants on their hieroglyphics? I could say a lot more but i actually think its easier to belive the alien/giant theorys then this BS.

  146. on 01 Feb 2013 at 4:42 pmJoe

    Makes no sense anyone can write abouts “facts” passed down from the “truthful” and never disorted past. lol
    If you think there is no other life out there your human experience is just pointless. Also aliens are more belivable then a god randomly appointed to every aspect of life. Anyone can give “god” a place, its harder to think a more not church restained outlook. Aliens being possible is more beliveable then a homeless on a fucking boat saving every animal in the world.

  147. on 05 Feb 2013 at 8:42 pmDWCarkuff

    “I think it’s rather more inspiring to think that human beings, our own ancestors, created such spectacular monumental achievements.”

    I’m afraid I agree with Thoreau with respect to the “inspirational” qualities of the pyramids and other such monuments.

  148. on 18 Feb 2013 at 11:21 pmE Christopher Reyes

    For more aliens, and Biblical references, download,
    Man’s Search for Spirituality by E Christopher Reyes.
    A chronology of beliefs, sightings, and End of the World dates.

  149. on 19 Feb 2013 at 5:08 pmRDL

    While I am not saying aliens did make them and I do agree humans have been smarter for longer than we get credit. I think this article as a whole was laughable.

    So you admit we have not all the answers, admit we have never been able to duplicate on a similar scale and yet you are going to just matter of fact dismiss out of the box questioning currently held theories.

    I mean seriously at best they had to average laying a block every 4 minutes for 20 + years. That alone not taking into account that weather, droughts, and wars that would affect labor and access to resources. Log rollers, lubricants and such can only get so high. Pulley and ropes with the tension strength for these 2-3 ton blocks?

    At that time as well knowledge to do this achievement would have been a very small group of people. So you think that the kingdom always had just a platoon of engineers that could accomplish this.

    Personally I believe mankind has been around much longer than current science is admitting and mankind to a step back 5000 years ago and had to learn again many things we lost.

    These are examples I feel of what we lost for a long time. Man did build these but overall why and how based on theories here do not hold water when used in practice.

  150. on 16 Mar 2013 at 8:12 pmAulona

    I don’t know, but how would aliens know Imhotep’s plan for the pyramids. though there are nice graves for the workers people still think aliens built them. There are pyramids on mars so aliens might of seen them and built their own. People say aliens built the pyramids, false! why the f would aliens come and build a huge ass thing for our kings!

  151. on 21 Mar 2013 at 12:37 pmJordan

    Dear Ed, I don’t see how you can dismiss religion. But yet bring up the topic of aliens visiting us. For all we know the aliens could be the depicted Gods and Goddesses throughout time. We can not be totally sure, but I also hope just as you that aliens someday do comeback openly. To share with us their great knowledge and teach us how to become somewhat sufficient as a race.

  152. on 02 Apr 2013 at 6:09 pmLarry

    We are the aliens that we are talking about here. And yes, we built them.

  153. on 08 Apr 2013 at 4:25 amZschultz

    Why does everything need to proved or dis-credited. No one has the correct answer. Maybe that’s the beauty of life. We make it our own. They made the pyramids their own. Why don’t we do the same? Priorities? I don’t have answers for something I wasn’t involved in. Why should I crap on anyone’s beliefs? Maybe it was something beyond us or maybe human life just kicked some ass! We may only believe what we’ve personally seen. Remember that. History is told by those who want us to believe their thoughts

  154. on 25 Apr 2013 at 8:12 pmLuc

    While the misinformation about ancient egypt of the average individual is about on par with learning about native americans by going to the buffalo bill museum, dogmatic egyptologists are held back just as much by tradition and politics.
    the giza pyramid is 2.3 millions stones, about.
    The four bases have an error of 58 millimeters.
    The stone on the top has an error of 1/4 an inch (divide 1/4 inch by 2,299,999 stones and you get your average measure of error)
    based on a 20 year period of building, in which they were farming 9 months of the year, leaving 3 months a year to work – at ten hours a day, 7 days a week 365 days a year, they would have had to have placed a stone every two seconds.
    2 to 40 ton stones placed every two seconds with that much accuracy. Oh yeah, and people tell you they did this with copper tools.
    In short, losers who watch TV and have nothing better to than hope some waka-waka-shakra green man will save them-or-fucking eat them? gawwd……. ruin any kind of logical ADULT alternate speculation because they want to be part of something sooooo bad but can’t get off the couch. It sucks that dumb pothead chicks who can’t shut up about mother earth want to be abducted by ancient aliens, but at the same time no hieroglyphics ANYWHERE mention building pyramids. odd.
    also people don’t like talking about the Osirian temple in abydos since an impartial geologist dated it much older than egyptologists want it to be.

  155. on 17 Aug 2013 at 5:48 pmDr. Paul Gomez

    Good post. To the question “why aren’t we making new pyramids”. The correct answer is we have built thousands of buildings and structures way better and complex than the Egyptian pyramids. But if you want to insist, take for example the Transamerica Pyramid building in Los Angeles. It has 48 stories of usable space. And this is just one example. People prefer to learn about legends because true engineering is not digestible by most people. I for one am very impressed with all dams. Those are terrific engineering structures way more complex than the Egyptian pyramids but people don’t seem to appreciate them. Ancient Egyptians used the solid pyramid shape because they didn’t want to fight gravity. They didn’t know how. A hollow building with habitable space is more complex than a pyramid. It has to defeat gravity, sustain winds and still be hollow enough to provide functionality.

  156. on 05 Sep 2013 at 7:39 pmVai

    What if it’s true like the expert here has claimed: ‘ If this hoisting technique was used at the Great Pyramid during construction, it would take twenty seven men one minute to hoist a five thousand pound block at a rate of one hundred vertical feet per minute.’ (quoted from “The Forgotten Technology”)

    visit here: http://www.theforgottentechnology.com/newpage3

  157. on 19 Sep 2013 at 8:36 amnecr0sys

    If it were compared to a skyscraper, the Great Pyramid would be 42 stories high. It contains enough stone to build a six foot high wall from New York to Los Angeles.

    Researchers Alan and Sally Lansberg provide the following statistics regarding this incredible edifice:

    “Somehow the builders knew that the world was round but flattened at the poles, which caused a degree of latitude to lengthen at the top and bottom of the planet; that it rotated in one day on an axis tilted 23.5° to the ecliptic, causing night and day, and that this tilt caused the seasons; that earth circled the sun once in a year of 365 and a fraction days.

    The designers also must have known that earth’s celestial north pole described a slow circle around the pole of the ecliptic, making the constellations appear to ‘slip backward’ (the precession of the equinoxes), and bring a new constellation of the Zodiac behind the sun at the equinox approximately every twenty two hundred years in a grand circle of about twenty-six thousand years.

    These facts, too, were part of the internal measurements of the pyramid”.

    We are asked to believe that primitive man, dressed in animal skins and roaming wild, constructed the Great Pyramid with all that it entails, yet these same builders had not yet invented the simple wheel.

    From an astronomical point of view, we have learned some extraordinary facts. There are four long narrow passage ways or shafts built into the Great Pyramid. Two on the north face and two on the south. The two on the north point to two distinct stars. One at Beta Ursa Minor and one at Alpha Draconis in the constellation of Draco.

    The ‘star shafts’ on the south face point at Sirius and Zeta Orionis. In ancient Egyptian tradition, Sirius is associated with the goddess Isis.

    And Zeta Orionis, which is the brightest star of three in Orions belt, is identified with Osiris, the high god of resurrection and rebirth in the remote epoch referred to as ‘Zep Tepi’ or ‘First Time’. (See figure 2 below)

    I think there is far more to the pyramids to just believe humans built them. In the Bible and actually in most religions there is mention of giants or nephilims, mythological giants which were basically the offspring of humans and extra dimensional beings (mistakenly believe to be aliens). There is much proof that these nephilim existed, besides most unrelated religions speak of these mythological beings, most of the world’s monumental mysteries like the pyramids, uncannily share similar names with many of these mythological beings. Please see this https://sites.google.com/site/theywatchus/evidence-of-nephilim-giants

  158. on 01 Oct 2013 at 2:19 pmJohnny

    I dont agree with this: The perfect right angles of the pyramid were likely achieved using either a set square, of which ancient specimens are preserved, or using a ‘Pythagorean’ triangle, which was known to the Egyptians before the Greeks. They also used specialized surveying tools called the merkhet (basically a plumb bob) and the bay, a sighting tool made from the central rib of a palm leaf. Examples of such precision tools have actually been excavated are square levels with plumb bobs, set squares, and vertical plumb rods, and there are depictions of them being used by the Egyptians. After each of the four corners of the building had been plotted, the Egyptians would align the straight sides by stretching a rope between each of the corners in a ceremony called ‘stretching the cord’. This method was in use for decades before the first pyramid was ever built, and was first depicted in the reign of the Second Dynasty king, Khasekhemwy.

    But then why don’t we build pyramids?

    Again, misinformation makes people assume that since we aren’t building pyramids ourselves, the Egyptians couldn’t possibly have. As one person states: ‘How about the fact that a group of modern scientists attempted to build a pyramid out next to the real one using modern technologies, and after something like 100 days, succeeded in building one about 1/40 of the size of the real one????’

    Well, again a classic example of wilful ignorance. I’m sure there have been a number of experiments like these, but the major one that I’m aware of, the NOVA pyramid-building experiment took 40 days to build a pyramid measuring 20ft high. However, they attempted to use mainly ancient technologies, they only had a team of 44 workmen, a short time period, and a total lack of experience in pyramid building. And it was just an experiment—they weren’t trying to build a real pyramid! Egypt had a state-controlled system capable of acquiring and organizing the necessary people and resources. The Egyptians would have used thousands of workers and taken many years to build a proper pyramid, and just because we aren’t building them too doesn’t prove that it was humanely impossible.

    The pyramids of Giza form the belt of Orion

    A theory proposed by Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert, notes that the pattern formed by the layout of the pyramids is virtually identical to the three belt stars of the constellation Orion. If one considers the details of the Orion correlation it seems likely that it is pure coincidence. Orion’s belt is a famous star formation partly because of the natural simplicity of its layout. The arrangement of the Giza pyramids in that pattern was probably simply because it offered the best sight lines. Basically the pyramids are laid out in a diagonal line, rather than blocking each other. Khafre built his pyramid after his father Khufu built the Great Pyramid and very cleverly situated his smaller pyramid on the higher part of the plateau so as to actually make his appear bigger than his father’s!

    Bauval and Gilbert further pressed the Orion comparison by using computer software to pinpoint the date in ancient history when the alignment of the pyramids would have exactly mirrored the constellation Orion in the sky. They claim this conjunction occurred precisely in 10,450 BC and therefore this is the true date of the building of the pyramids by aliens, before the rise of Egyptian civilization. However, there is absolutely no evidence that the pyramids existed before the Egyptians did. There is overwhelming evidence that they are the cultural, religious, and political products of the early Egyptian state. The Giza pyramids were built during the 4th dynasty, which probably dates to around 2575-2450 BC.

    Radiocarbon dating, which is unfortunately not always that accurate, was done on the Great Pyramid several times in the 1980s and 90s, (initially funded by the Edgar Cayce Foundation, another group that wanted the pyramids to date to 10,500 BC, believing them to be remnants of Atlantean society!). The radiocarbon dates for the Great Pyramid ranged from 2660 to 3809 BC, slightly older than the historical dates previously assumed. Also, the great cedar boat found buried beside the Great Pyramid was radiocarbon dated to about 2,600 BC. So the pyramids certainly do not date from 10,500 BC!

    So yes, the Egyptians, not aliens, built the pyramids!

    Pyramid building became a great cultural tradition of the Egyptian and about 30 key pyramids were built, not including all the accompanying satellite or queens’ pyramids, over a span of more than 800 years—remarkable monuments, for which the Egyptians deserve the credit.

    The theory that aliens built the pyramids is built on fanciful notions, misinformation, and a wilful ignorance that completely disregards any scholarly research that contradicts the theory. Alien theorists have barely anything to support their idea other than the tactic of attacking the uncertainty of Egyptologists over the details of the building process. They prey on the people who find inspiration in the concepts of the pyramids and alien life and use them to fuel publicity for their sensationalist books and television programmes. Both ‘Is there Life elsewhere in the universe?’ and ‘How were the pyramids built?’ are questions worthy of being asked, but they belong to separate spheres of research and different periods of history, and should be kept that way. Zahi Hawass, the head of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Egypt and the Director of the Giza Pyramids Excavation, says of the people who believe in alien theories, ‘People like to dream. If you meet someone who is not an archaeologist, they love to dream…but you have to know a little bit about reality.’ While reality might not involve conspiracy theories or UFOs, it can still be thrilling to learn about the real people behind their creation.

    We shouldn’t rob ourselves of feeling pride in the pyramids as a human achievement. In building these monumentally inspiring constructions, our ancestors built the foundations of civilization. We shouldn’t betray their ingenuity with our ignorance, but celebrate it by continuing to build upon the intellectual developments and inventions that made the pyramids possible.

  159. on 04 Oct 2013 at 12:55 amjesse

    everyone on this that believes that Egyptians built the pyramids are all in denial that there is something bigger and more superior then us, first of all there is no technology now that could do that, so theres no technology back then that could of. Not to mention the alien rocket drawings in the pyramids. Aliens are like us except there civilisation started many years before us, they are just ahead of us because they were made first if we were as old as thier species we would be up to them to, but obviously every planet would do everything differently with different recourses and different brains.

    OK so lets say our species gets as old an advanced as them, what would we do if we visited an inhabited planet, would we disrupt what there doing and maybe cause universal war ? or would we observe there planet and their ways ? exactly we would. AND THERE ARE NO FACTS that humans built the pyramids just because they have plans or what not roads n shit like you say, haha, As if kings back then wouldnt claim that they built them to the rest of the world to look superior. i do not think aliens built them for kings like what that dumbass said above, they obviously did it for themselves fool or for another reason, they were made ages before people say they were built before governments and all that, no one person could control that amount of people to do such a significant and overwlehming structure. Unless ALiens were the king came to earth and dumb people or apes that had no knowledge of anything all hailed these creatures that are not simply better then us, but have just exsisted for longer than us.

  160. on 04 Oct 2013 at 1:05 amjesse

    that is just a theory, maybe the Aliens mated with apes and thats how we are now. come to think of it, if you mix an alien with an ape, it would look pretty much exactly like us.

    You cannot say that out of the infinity of the universe that we are the superior ones. we are so young compared to other planets and we have tried and succeeded to reach other planets just like other inhabitants of other planets would have, but we would not disrupt the environment and life of another planet we would observe it.

    the disruption of another planet could be catastrophic to the universe and dont you think aliens would know that ? just like we do ? or do you still think we are the smartest and superior species in the infinite of the universe ? haha if you do, you are a sad human being that cannot except the brilliance and that anything is possible in this world of life.

  161. on 04 Oct 2013 at 2:18 amJohn A

    While given many good points, no real proof. The theories are just that. 600 years ago we “knew the world was flat” . So any theories offer until we know for sure we should consider possible.

  162. on 04 Oct 2013 at 9:43 pmcarrie

    Great argument! My question is, the Egyptians were very explicit and obsessed with documenting every little thing, from how to mummify their people, to how they lit the insides of the pyramids, why then, did they not document how they built there great pyramids?

    P.S. I believe WE are the aliens. I don’t believe in any green men beaming people up… although, I do not think we are the only species in this vast universe and we may have been visited, but I believe that humans have evolved on different planets and they are the ones that give us less evolved humans, a little push?

    Still, that doesn’t explain why the Egyptians didn’t actually document the building of the pyramids. Possibly they were told to leave that information out to keep people interested and questioning?

  163. on 04 Oct 2013 at 9:44 pmcarrie

    *their.

  164. on 08 Oct 2013 at 9:10 pmEric

    All things are possible with GOD.
    Doesn’t that tell you anything?

  165. on 14 Oct 2013 at 6:28 pmEinar Jóhannesson

    Fantastic article! Was prompted to look into this after hearing an idiot on the radio argue that the pyramids couldn’t have been built by a “tribe of nomads”. I wouldn’t be surprised if a lot of the “ancient astronaut” bullcrap is rooted in a similar sense of prejudice or even full blown racism.

  166. on 30 May 2014 at 3:55 amAaron K

    The arguments in favor of the Egyptians building the pyramids, both by the author of this article and by commenters are generally well thought out and provide information to back up the arguments. On the other hand the arguments in favor of aliens building the pyramids are generally backed up by more questions. How is it possible that this…our that… I believe most people are open to different theories, but common sense leads us to believe ideas backed by thought.

  167. on 15 Jun 2014 at 10:50 pmPete

    Its interesting everyone assumes its either aliens or egyptians that built the pyramids. After a bit of research Into various areas ive got a different potential origin.

    Humans are pretty damn smart. To think that its taken us 150,000 to advance to this point considering the significant advances in the last century alone, before information was freely available online, is perhaps a severe underestimation of what we’re capable of.

    A lot of claims of pyramid discoveries around the world have been cropping up lately, some claming to date back to 20-30 thousand years (bosnia), others astonishingly 65 million years old apparently discovered in chrimea with a mummy buried inside. Its difficult to validate these claims online with limited reliable sources and a lot of over egging, but there does appear to be some reasonable evidence in the photographic, video and so called scientific analysis.

    There have been a number of mass extincton events thoughout human history and earth history. Including the last ice age and one proposed more recently around 10, 000 years ago. Perhaps civilisations superior to ours have risen and fallen at the hands of an m.e.e.

    Apparently theres an egyptian tablet claiming their civilisation was 36, 000 years old, assuming for one second the bosnia claim is legitimate, it could be possible that an ancient civilisation that built pyramids in bosnia, and perhaps advanced for tens of thousands of years before that time, rose from the immense tunnel network beneath the bosnian pyramids after the ice age and migrated to egypt to start a new civilisation. This society thrived for 30, 000 years before an extinction event that left the egyptians with nothing but their customs and relics to rebuild from. There civilisation thrived for another few thousand years to which we acknowledge as the entire length of their reign, that would put our civilisation at a relatively young age in the scheme of human existence. Assuming any evidence for this more recent m.e.e is also legitimate.

  168. on 29 Jun 2014 at 2:46 amJonny

    Very nice propaganda, good on you believing exactly what you have been led to believe. So egyptians built the pyramids, big woop. They obviously stole technology from older civilizations that were far more advanced than they were. And in all honestly did a mediocre job in comparison by the looks of things. I read half of this thing (skimmed the rest) and almost all of it appear to be a load of crap that may make sense to even the most intelligent people who have been brainwashed by mass media. And quite frankly either this guy is being payed to create such propaganda or he truly believes this shit. But then again this article was posted in 2007 so that isn’t too surprising. A lot of more controversial evidence has surfaced however that has yet to be suppressed by the all powerful elite. Or it was always around which would either mean this man did not do enough research (unlikely) or he simply refused to include it in his biased rant. Now I must clarify that I have yet to believe in aliens (though I do not deny it as a possibility because that would be ignorant) but there is definitely far more complicated and advanced that has lived on this planet. Something beyond what in which we could possibly comprehend with our tiny spectrum of knowledge and understanding. Heck, maybe God. Anyways, I would like to propose my theory (And I call it a theory because I am not ignorant to believe even myself) based on the research that I have conducted. Now it would appear to be a fact that the pyramids (among other large things poking out of the earth) have been created to harness the energy of the earth. This energy has been suggested to have incredible healing powers. The kind of stuff that will cure asthma and intense stuff like that. Now for the weird stuff. This energy seems to increase as you rise above the pyramids which is why I think they focus this energy. Oh, and I forgot to mention that these energy blasts come out in systematic areas of the earth that have a definite pin precise geometry. Which in itself should get you thinking. Oh and if you think that there are only pyramids in egypt than…well that is just really pathetic. The largest pyramids (so they say, china has one thats bigger than the great one) are in bosnia. And one of these date back over 25,000 years! Anyways my crazy theory is that something is using these pyramids (or used) as powerplants for some crazy stuff like interdimentional travel, or crazy shit like that. There have been plenty of “UFO” sightings above pyramids apparently. Recharging prerhaps?One guy I researched said something about the use of the other 20+ senses that I honestly didn’t know existed until a few months ago. The more spiritual and crazy superhero senses. Did you know there is a guy who was born blind that can see? Thats some dare devil shit. Thats the kind of information that was lost/suppressed. Do some more research, this thing is getting lengthy.

  169. on 16 Jul 2014 at 8:51 pmray vella

    I am neither for or against the alien theory all I would like to know is why are there no records of the pyramids being built? They recorded almost everything in their daily lives for 2500 years carved or painted on walls yet I have never heard or seen anything closely resembling the building of the pyramids. They show a large statue being pulled by hundreds of men and water being pored in front to pack down the sand which I suppose would work but nothing on pyramids. Why? If there is anything I could be directed to I would greatly appreciate it.

  170. on 31 Jul 2014 at 7:12 amDisgusting Wise Guy

    Sometimes a Google search shows you exactly what you are looking for. Like this time. Marvellous article, you summarized the essential points and questions on this subject and explained them with simple rational arguments that explained a lot of stuff I would have had to gather from multiple sites or wikipedia articles. Plus I learned some very cool and interesting facts about the process of getting the first ones right, I think it’s especially fascinating how the adjustings can be seen in the structure of Sneferu’s ‘Bent’ Pyramid. Now that really is history to look at, in more ways than one.
    Thank you for this.

    ……………….

    I wanted to end here initially but after reading just some of the comments I had to write a comment. This is your fault people, you made me do it. It’s all on you.

    Now let me address all of you, commenting folk of team Pro-Alien-Thesis (yes you heard me, if we be real than it is not even a theory, just a thesis).
    Pretty funny how some commenting folk seem to just want THEIR proven theory put in the text, it seems without even having read the article. What really angered me were those who seemingly just wanted to insult the other just for the sake of it. Especially because the author never lashes out at the alien believer community and certainly never insults them in a hurtful way. He just suggests a general ignorance among them regarding human history, which in my opinion is true about most people anyway.
    Also if you had read the article, you would have come to know that he even says he believes that extraterrestrial life could be possible. He just explains why he believes that such life was not responsible for the pyramids.
    Now one last, no. 154: Luc. Know what I especially love? Guys like you who haven’t even read the text and then just blart out some faux information they got from a youtube video. “Oh yeah, and people tell you they did this with copper tools.” is just one of these fine examples.
    Allow me to comment on your comment: “Who said ANYTHING EVER about copper tools. The article above I just read said something about ropes, levers, oxen, muddy surfaces. Also people, may you consider the fact that you can quarry and etch stones with…. wait for it…. *drumroll* [yes I'm an assole] …. wait a lil’ longer……. STONES! Dayumn, that was to simple wasn’t it?
    And the people who were assigned to build pyramids weren’t working at the fields and field workers weren’t involved in pyramid building (except for some workers whose fields were flooded) and not to forget the amount of them who were outlandish slaves.

    I shall now go back to my shrine in the basement and worship Shub Niggurath to pray to him that he may end all ignorance and with it the world.

    Good fight, good night!

  171. on 04 Aug 2014 at 12:55 pmSaint Michael

    You lost me when you said Osiris was an ancient king. It is well known throughout the high initiated tribes who began to keep our culture and knowledge secret from white people around 6,000 years ago when they were created that Osiris and Heru (Horus) never existed. They were parables used to tell stories. Non black uninitiated people came and seen them on our walls and thought we worshipped them… We ain’t worship anybody True ancient egypt. That’s a non black concept

  172. on 06 Sep 2014 at 5:01 amTazman

    I think the writer of this article, has no clue of how the pyrimids are built or by whom, it for sure was not the Egyptians, if this were true we would have to believe that with brass and copper tools and with wooden wedges and very frail tools, the could quarry, move, and shape, then move into place blocks some weighing over 50 tons, with hundreds of thousands of workers, and most not paid, forget about needing farmers, and people to mine metals and make all the tools, forget about women to bith children and feed the workers, no the king of egypt made every last person work just the pyramids, cause seriously if they even had a few hundred thousand people back then, theuy sure the hell were not all dedicated to the pyrimids, nor could one king make them all that dedicated, nor could he even have that large of an influence, when people back then would have thier families to think about. It makes more sense to think that perhaps we are the Stone Age and they had more technology than we have today or aliens did build the pyrimids, either way that makes more sense. About the only people that believe the pyrimids were built by egyptians are the egyptologists, as any engineer that works in building large structures and dealing with granite and stone will tell you even with todays technology in cutting and shaping and the largets of cranes and heavy moving equipment we could not com close to doing the pyrimids, well I belive the egineer who deals with facts and absolutes before I believe and egyptologist who deals in maybies and I DON’T KNOWS OR we think perhaps, why don’t the egyptologists just also try and make us beleive in Santa Clause as well or the Tooth Fairy, lmao. Aliens and us having a more sophisticated level of tech then than we do not all of a sudden makes more sense and more reason. Egyptologists should not get paid for what they do, it should be a hobby education as it has no reason nor can it ever be proved and has no meaning when we look as what the world really needs. Put more effort into the real world issues and just let is believe or know the pyrimids were build by aliens, if it is not true we will figure it out like we figure out Santa Clause is also fake. Egyptologists get paid and given way too much to prove way too little, if we took all that wasted grant money, that basically goes to prove an out dated way of life which has little meaning to the world of today, since we gain little other than a little wow interest, we may havea better understanding of the world of today, for all I and anyone else really cares, aliens may well be responsible for the pyrimids and who really cares, they are there and thats all we can really prove for sure, enough said

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